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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4811

    Title: 蘇努家族與天主教信仰之研究;A Study of the Sunu Family and Their Faith in Catholicism
    Authors: 涂靜盈;Jing-Ying Tu
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 雍正帝;天主教;蘇努;Sunu;Catholicism;Emperor Yung-cheng
    Date: 2009-05-06
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:33:07 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 蘇努(1648-1725)為清初宗室,努爾哈齊長子褚英(1580-1615)四世孫,與雍正帝同輩。其與諸子在康熙朝頗有發展,且與皇九子允禟(1683-1726)親近。雍正帝即位後,蘇努家族隨即遭難。由於蘇努諸子多為天主教徒,而雍正帝亦厲行禁教,故其家族遭難被解讀為與政治或宗教有關。教會資料認為此案是由於宗教的因素,而研究上多循此解釋成因而受到政治迫害。筆者將此案分為不同階段來分析討論,以探索蘇努案於清初以至中葉時期,在政治史和天主教傳華史中的定位,並應用過往研究者未曾使用的《愛新覺羅宗譜》,藉以呈現完整的案情。 蘇努家族在康熙朝發展達至頂峰。康熙年間,蘇努封至多羅貝勒,任至奉天將軍;其子亦多有發展,有輔國公、正黃旗副都統、正紅旗副都統、鎮國將軍等官銜,相當獲得康熙帝的信任。但雍正帝繼位經歷激烈競爭,故對政敵嚴厲處置,蘇努亦是其一。雍正帝指責蘇努諸多罪名,包括挾祖仇亂政、與允襈結黨等,致使蘇努家族遭流放山西右衛並被拿掉黃帶子。結黨罪名最受指責,為蘇努家族在雍正初年遭難的主因。雍正五年後,雍正帝得知蘇努家族對天主教的堅定信仰,重新關注此案,不斷以寬嚴並濟方式勸其諸子改變信仰,未果後以更嚴厲方式對待蘇努家族,冠以「叛逆」罪名。乾隆帝即位後,蘇努家族一度受到寬待,但後來卻因奉教於嘉慶朝和道光朝再度遭難。 蘇努家族之案與清代皇帝對旗人信教的態度有關。康熙帝對旗人信教較寬鬆,而雍正帝對此事嚴加反對是由於蘇努家族的宗室身份。乾隆帝並未注意此事,但嘉慶朝和道光朝又嚴加反對旗人信教。總之,蘇努家族因堅持信教,在各朝遭難而不悔,致使原本顯赫的蘇努家族為之沒落,成為清代一段格外突出的案例。 Sunu(1648-1725), member of the Manchu Imperial Family, was a great-grand son of Cuyen(1580-1615), Nurhaci’s eldest son. He and his sons had made significant achievements in the period of Emperor Kang-hsi, and had been intimate with Emperor Kang-hsi’s ninth son, Yin-tang(1683-1726). After Emperor Yung-cheng succeeded to the throne, Sunu’s family were punished. Because several of Sunu’s sons were Christians and Emperor Yung-cheng forbad the dissemination of Christianity in China, the bitter experience of Sunu’s family has been interpreted as a religious persecution or a political persecution. The church material often put this matter in religious perspective and later studies follow this interpretation in using the idea of religious persecution. In this thesis I approach this topic through different stages of Sunu’s family in order to have a better understanding of the case of the Sunu’s family from the early Ch’ing to the mid-Ch’ing Dynasty. The availability of "The Genealogy of Aixinjueluo’s Family" not only gives us a complete picture of this case but also makes this study different with the earlier studies on this case. Sunu’s family had reached its climax in the period of Emperor Kang-hsi. Sunu was raised the rank to a prince of the third degree, and served as military governor of Fengtien while several of his sons also had occupied important positions, such as the princes of the sixth and seventh degree, lieutenant-generals of the Manchu Red and Yellow Banner and many other honorary titles. They had obtained Emperor Kang-hsi’s trust. However, after Emperor Yung-cheng accessed to the throne through power struggle, he dealt with his political opponents with severe means. Sunu had become one of them. Among the various charges that Emperor Yung-cheng put on sunu, the most important were the rebellion of Cuyen, Sunu’s ancestor and Sunu’s collaboration with Yin-tang. Sunu’s family was banished to Yu-wei, Shansi and the entire family was stripped of the Yellow Belts. “Collaboration with others for an evil purpose” was the most serious charge. However, from the fifth year of Emperor Yung-cheng (1727), when Emperor Yung-cheng learned that they were pious Catholic believers, the Emperor paid attention to this case and attempted to use carrot and stick to force them abandon their faith. After the failure of various means, the Emperor decided to use more severe treatment and put them under the charge of “rebellion.” Although this family enjoyed a lenient treatment in the period of Emperor Chien-lung, they had another difficult time in the period of Emperor Chia-ching and Emperor Tao-kuang because of their religion. The case of Sunu’s family has been related to Manchu Emperors’ attitude toward Bannerman’s faith in Christianity. Emperor Kang-hsi was lenient in this matter while Emperor Yung-cheng was severe, especially when Sunu was related to imperial clan. However, Sunu’s family did not waiver their faith in different times, even to the point that the whole family declined for this reason. The case of this family has become a unique and distinguished case in Ch’ing times.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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