本論文旨在透過民國初年上海地區的藝術展覽會與藝術批評，來討論西方參考架構之下的「美術」在中國建制化的過程。具體而言，民國初年是西畫活動在中國熱烈展開的時期，特別在二○年代之際，西畫已經不若早先側重在物質救國的技術層面，實業考量逐漸退出藝術活動的範圍，藝術的美感評判標準取而代之，如是的發展方向尤其顯現在上海地區的西畫活動。上海自晚清以來就是西畫活動的重鎮，無論在西畫學習、結社組織、展示活動等方面，上海都比其他地區具有更多的優勢，美術展覽會與藝術批評更是此區西畫活動的重點。展覽會與藝評是推動藝術社會傳播的主要力量，美術品向大眾展示除了具有社會性的意義之外，美術展示的公開化更有助藝術問題引起社會廣泛的討論，也就是在如是的情況之下，藝術的生命力與社會影響得以處於有別傳統的活躍狀態。 This thesis aims to discuss the establishment process of the “Art,” which took the Western world as its structural references, in the framework of the art exhibitions and criticism that took place in the Shanghai region in the early 1920’s. The 1920’s were a stage where the Western paintings began its fervent activities in China. The Western paintings at this time were no longer focusing on the functional techniques as they used to be. The aesthetics of art were becoming more and more important by the day. In the 1920’s art exhibitions and criticism were the focus of the development of Western paintings, other than the intent to bring art into society with the display of artistic objects to the public. The public display of art helped bring up wide discussions of artistic issues in the society, and it was under this kind of environment that the artistic vitality and the social influences were at their most active.