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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4863

    Title: 休寧貴公子,邗上大畫師-查士標生平與繪畫研究;Studies of Zha Shibiao's life and paintings
    Authors: 唐心怡;Hsin-yi Tang
    Contributors: 藝術學研究所
    Keywords: 查士標;黃山;新安畫派;遺民;職業畫家;揚州;徽州;Yang Zhou;Hui Zhou;professional painter;Ming loyalist;Zha Shi-biao;Mt. Huang;Xin-an school
    Date: 2007-07-09
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:34:26 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 在明末清初時,面對江山變色、異族統治,知識份子必須在「貳臣」和「遺民」間做抉擇。大多「遺民」文人們沒有其他一技之長,紛紛進入了職業畫家的行列。這批由明入清的職業畫家與過去不同,他們秉著文人的身分,賣的不只是書、畫等技藝,更是他們的氣節、性格、學識與品味。查士標 (1615-1698) 也是其中之一。然而,查士標的「遺民」身分並不表示他對故明的絕對忠烈。他生性平淡,逍遙自在,很快就適應新朝的新生活。而隨著滿清的統治漸入佳境,「明」或「清」、「漢」或「滿」的爭議已不再是那麼重要。對於故明已逝,查士標能夠坦然以對,但對故鄉的毀滅,他卻一輩子無法忘懷。   出身徽州休寧鹽商家庭的查士標,和弘仁、孫逸、汪之瑞合稱「新安四家」,他們的繪畫風格在很大程度上受到徽商收藏品味的影響。倪瓚疏淡簡逸的畫風最受徽商的喜愛,甚至以有無定雅俗。新安的畫家們由倪瓚的傳統出發,以家鄉的黃山、白岳風景為源泉,貌寫家山。然而,新安畫家們的活動不在徽州地區,反而主要是以揚州和南京為市場及根據地。查士標就是在揚州開始職業畫家生涯,並建立起名聲的新安畫家之一。   在家園遭毀後旅居揚州的查士標,一路伴隨著這個曾遭大屠殺的城市恢復繁榮,在此渡過他人生的精華。除了書畫生意之外,他遊山玩水、社交集會。與江南文人交遊,認識了笪重光、宋犖、孔尚任、周量工等知名文士兼朝廷官員,他們同時也是查士標的贊助人。這些知名人士的背書,正是查士標「畫名」的最好宣傳。此外,他也與王翬、石濤、龔賢、髡殘等新進或同輩畫家往來,彼此詩畫交流。而同時具有收藏家身分的查士標,能夠輕易地透過網絡進入江南收藏家的圈子,有機會參觀別家珍藏的古代大師名作,這對他在習古方面有很大的助益。      儘管在揚州生活了大半輩子,也能完全融入這個風月繁華的社會,但查士標始終無法在此地找到他的歸屬感。自始至終,他都自稱為「邗上旅人」,期望有天能結束旅居生涯,回到朝思暮想的家園。不幸事與願違,他至死都未返回過休寧老家。家鄉就像是他晚年所畫的《桃花源》,一個與世隔絕的神聖之地,一旦出走,就無法重返。只能在夢中重溫,在畫中追憶。新安家鄉的山水早已深深刻在查士標的心底,當黃山奇景從一筆一墨之間自然躍於紙上之時,就好似訴說著他對家鄉永恆不變的情感與思念。 In late Ming-early Qing period, facing the transition to the new alien dynasty, the intellectuals must identify themselves either to be “a collaborator to serve the alien Qing Manchus” or “a Ming loyalist”. Most of the Ming loyalists became professional painters because they did not have other skills. This group of professional painters in early Qing was different from that of the past. They insisted their identity of literati and what they sold were not only their skills of paintings and calligraphy, but also their loyalty, character, scholarship and taste. Zha Shi-biao(1615-1698) was one of them. However, as a loyalist, Zha didn't show his impassioned loyalty to the dead Ming empire. He was a modest man who enjoyed his carefree and life. Not for too long, he accommodated himself to the new society under the foreign government of Qing. As the reign of Manchus was getting strong and stronger, the dispute of "Ming" or "Qing", "Manchus" or "Han" was not that important anymore. Though Zha could face the reality of the Ming’s collapse easily, but he could never recover from the grief of the lost of his homeland through out his whole life. Zha Shi-biao was born of a rich Hui-zhou salt merchant family in Xiu-ning. Historical documents classified him as one of "Xin-an four Masters," which also include Sun I, Wang Zhi-rui and Hong Ren. The painting style of Xin-an masters was greatly influenced by the preference of collection of Hui-zhou merchants. In that period, the most popular paintings in Hui-zhou art market was the paintings of Ni Zan. Whether you owned a Ni Zan’s painting or not is a criterion for others to judge you being “tasteful" or "vulgar". In this circumstance, Xin-an painters usually inherited Ni Zan's painting tradition. In addition, the homeland landscape of Mt. Huang and Mt. Bai in Xin-an was an important inspiration for their paintings. After Zha Shi-biao's homeland was ravaged, he chose to sojourn in Yang-zhou. He spent the best of his life here, seeing this city recovered form the "ten-day massacre" and became a prosperous city. During his residence in Yang-zhou, besides the paintings business, Zha traveled many famous sites in southern China and attended literary gatherings actively. In the southern literati circle, Zha had the contacts with some scholar-officials, such as Da Chong-guang, Song Luo, Kong Shang-ren and Zhou Liang-gong. They were both friends and patrons of Zha. Their admiration and recognition for Zha's works rose his reputation as a scholar-professional painter. Zha Shi-biao was also close with some contemporary painters, including Wang Hui, Shi Tao, Gong Xian and Kun can. They appreciated each others’ poems and paintings. Other than a scholar and painter, Zha was also a collector. He accessed the collector's circle in southern China easily and it granted him many opportunities to see others' collection, which was a great help to his study of the past. Although Zha Shi-biao spent most of his life in Yang zhou and even became a habitant of this prosperous and vanity city, he could never find the hometown in his heart here. He always called himself a "Han-shang traveler", because he hoped the sojourn would be over one day and he could return to his homeland. Unfortunately, he didn't return to his hometown in Xiu-ning again all his life. In 1695, Zha Shi-biao painted a hand scroll, Tao-hua yuan tu, referring to his homeland. For Zha, his homeland was a remote and sacred place like Tao-hua yuan—a place once you left, you could never find the way back again. So he could only dream of it and paint it on papers. Actually, the landscape of homeland had already deeply inscribed in Zha's heart. The marvel and grandeur of Mt. Huang coming out of his brush and ink seemed to tell us that his affection to his homeland would last forever.
    Appears in Collections:[藝術學研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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