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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4873

    Title: 戴進道釋畫研究—以《達摩六祖圖》為核心;The Study of Tai Chin's Daoism and Buddhism Painting-Focusing on the Six Patriarch of Ch'an
    Authors: 何嘉誼;Ka-yi Ho
    Contributors: 藝術學研究所
    Keywords: 戴進;達摩六祖圖;傳法定祖;道釋畫;浙派;the Six Patriarch of Ch'an;Daoism and Buddhism Painting;the Che School;Tai Chin
    Date: 2008-07-08
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:34:38 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 戴進(1388-1462)為明代浙派的代表性畫家,於畫史記載中戴進是一名多才多藝的畫家,曾從事山水、人物、花鳥、竹石等畫科。然而現今關於戴進的既有研究,僅釐清了戴進於山水方面的成就與風格特徵。另外,在戴進生平事蹟方面,也仍未清楚解釋戴進早年的出身背景及其多次出入京師的原因。本研究即欲從戴進生平經歷與當時稅役制度的相互對照中,梳理出戴進善畫道釋作品的原因。另外,藉由研究戴進現存的幾件戴進道釋畫作品,建立戴進道釋畫所承襲的圖像傳統與風格特徵。 現藏遼寧省博物館的《達摩六祖圖》,全作分為六段,分別畫出了達摩傳慧可、慧可傳僧璨、僧璨傳道信、道信傳牛頭法融、弘忍傳慧能、慧能傳與弟子的法脈傳承關係。《達摩六祖圖》在作品題材上,為確立佛教法統於祖師間傳承關係的傳法定祖圖之一。現存有三件宋代的傳法定祖圖,分別為《達摩宗六祖師像》、《傳法正宗定祖圖卷》、《大理國梵像卷》的祖師段落。三件作品雖在形式、人物組成、風格畫法上皆不相同,但卻說明了傳法定祖圖於當時已是一個特定的繪畫題材。 《達摩六祖圖》於構圖上,繼承了宋以來傳法定祖圖的圖像特徵,將歷代祖師與其弟子間的傳宗付法序列出來,顯示戴進對傳統道釋題材的熟悉。然而戴進一改傳法定祖圖中沒有特定情節表現的祖師人物圖式,為不論在場景、人物姿態上,皆符合於燈傳記載的敘事圖像。另外,在風格畫法上,從與浙江地區自宋以來的存世道釋畫的比對中,可看出戴進道釋作品於人物衣紋、山水畫法上所具有的浙地風格。 另外,現藏北京故宮的《鍾馗夜遊圖》與台北故宮的《畫羅漢》,同樣既有延續題材既有圖式,又有創新之處。然而在作品的山石斧劈、暈染,以及衣紋筆描的寬粗線體表現上,反映出兩件作品具有較《達摩六祖圖》更為成熟的風格特徵。 綜上所述,戴進不僅精於山水畫,道釋畫亦是其擅長的畫科之一。 Tai Chin (1388-1462) was one of the leading painters of the Che School. In art history, Tai Chin was proficient in paintings of landscapes, figures, birds and flowers, bamboo and rocks, etc. However, according to earlier Tai Chin studies, we can merely establish the fact that Tai Chin was good at landscape painting and clarify the style used by Tai Chin in his landscape paintings. Furthermore, those earlier studies still did not provide a clear interpretation of Tai Chin’s painting background and did not explain the reason why Tai Chin had been to the nation’s capital several times throughout his life. One of the aims of this thesis is to study the early life of Tai Chin. By studying Tai Chin’s dealings with the tax system of the Ming dynasty, we can understand why Tai Chi excelled at painting Daoist and Buddhist figures. In addition, by examining Tai Chin’s extant paintings, we may be able to recognize the iconography and the style of Tai Chin’s Daoism and Buddhism painting. The Six Patriarch of Ch’an, preserved in the museum of Liaoning Province in China, presents portrait series of the first six Ch’an patriarchs and their disciples which indicates the patriarchs were passing on the Law to their disciples. In the portrait series, Bodhidharma was passing on the Law to Hui-k’o. Hui-k’o was passing on the Law to Seng-ts’an. Seng-ts’an was passing on the Law to Tao-hsin. Tao-hsin was passing on the Law to Niu-t’ou Fa-jung. Hung-jen was passing on the Law to Hui-neng. Hui-neng was passing on the Law to his disciple. The Six Patriarch of Ch’an is one of the representations of Passing-on-the-Law-and-Selecting-Successor type of painting, which proclaims the authority of the Ch’an patriarchs selected as the subject of the painting. There are three pieces of Passing-on-the-Law-and-Selecting-Successor paintings from the Song dynasty: the Six Patriarhs of the Bodhidharma Sect, the Illustrated Scroll of the Transmission of the Law in the True School by the Invested Patriarchs, and the Long Roll of Buddhist Images’ patriarchs section. The three paintings are different in their formatting, the selection of the patriarchs, and the style of painting. However, those paintings indicate that Passing-on-the-Law-and-Selecting-Successor type of painting had gradually become an established theme. Tai Chin’s the Six Patriarch of Ch’an was in mostly the same composition of those Passing-on-the-Law-and-Selecting-Successor type of paintings in the Song dynasty: every pictorial section of patriarch passing on the Law to his disciple is in chronological order, generation by generation. It means that Tai Chin was familiar with the theme and the genre of Buddhism painting. Nevertheless, by transforming the setting and the gesture of the figures in the painting, Tai Chin changed the symbolic portraits of patriarchs into narrative paintings, which tells particular stories of the Transmission of the Lamp. What’s more, by comparing with the remaining paintings of the Buddhist paintings from the Chekiang area, we can prove that Tai Chin’s drapery style and landscape style are considerably connected to Chekiang tradition. Moreover, in the Chung K’uei’s Excursion at Night, in Palace Museum, Beijing, and the Lohan, in National Palace Museum, Taipei, Tai Chin presented the same techniques of using the similar pictorial schemes from earlier tradition and his old pattern was transformed into new styles. However, the “axe-cut” strokes and ink wash of the surfaces of rocks and trees, and the broad strokes of the drapery lines for the figures suggested that the two paintings were from the late period of Tai Chin’s life. To sum up, besides Tai Chin’s well-known achievement in landscape paintings, this thesis proves his invincible talent in Daoist and Buddhist paintings.
    Appears in Collections:[藝術學研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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