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    题名: 乾隆宮廷製作之西湖圖;West Lake Paintings Produced in Qianlong Court
    作者: 蘇庭筠;Ting-Yun Su
    贡献者: 藝術學研究所
    关键词: 帝王品味;南巡;宮廷繪畫;西湖;乾隆;Qianlong;West Lake;court painting;Southern Inspection Tours;imperial taste
    日期: 2009-01-09
    上传时间: 2009-09-22 09:34:40 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 清高宗乾隆皇是繼康熙之後唯一六下江南的清帝,杭州西湖一直是他每回南巡必造訪流連的景點。杭州西湖在六朝之前沒沒無聞,至唐代始聲名漸著。過往曾有許多歷史名人在西湖畔留下身影,其中以西湖為創作主題的藝術家更是不勝枚舉。 由於天時地利等諸多因素的配合,歷代西湖圖相繼進了清內府,乾隆皇因而成為史上擁有最多西湖圖的帝王。乾隆皇對歷代西湖圖的鑑賞始於乾隆十六年(該年乾隆皇首度南巡),直至晚年。乾隆皇不只欣賞古人的西湖圖與西湖詩,更創造了大量的西湖詩與畫。他熱衷於再現西湖景致,不但命人繪製西湖圖與在御園中複製西湖景,也親自繪製西湖圖,並視之為政務餘暇的風雅消遣,晚年更視之為砥礪心志的活動。然而,乾隆皇的御製西湖圖並未全數收入《石渠寶笈》。在乾隆皇的要求下,《石渠寶笈》的編纂者篩選了有助於塑造其帝王形象的作品。 除了呈現乾隆皇對西湖之偏愛,乾隆皇對西湖的特殊情感以及其個人品味又如何影響到乾隆宮廷中西湖圖的欣賞與創作活動,是本文關注的重點。值得注意的是,在乾隆宮廷中為乾隆皇繪製西湖圖的畫家並非在如意館、造辦處貢職的職業畫家或天主教傳教士,而是擅長文人畫的官員(官階自正七品至從一品)如董邦達、張若澄、張宗蒼、徐揚、董誥與關槐等人。 乾隆宮廷中由皇帝與士流畫家所作的西湖圖,清楚地向我們揭示了乾隆皇深受漢族文人審美觀影響的藝術品味,以及乾隆宮廷中君臣在藝術創作方面的合作與交流。 Qianlong Emperor is the only Qing Dynasty emperor who made Southern Inspection Tours for six times after his grandfather, KangXi Emperor. West Lake in Hangzhou, as a scenic resort, was always included on the itinerary of Qianlong’s Southern Inspection Tours. Historically, West Lake had been unknown before Six Dynasties (A.D. 220-589) until Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907) it gradually gained its celebrity and was known for its beautiful scenery. In the past, a lot of remarkable and famous people in history left their figures on the lakeside, among them, there were countless artiest who chose West Lake as the motif of their works. Conditioned by space-time and other sorts of coincidences, a number of the classic West Lake Paintings of the previous dynasties were collected and sequentially entered Qing palace. Consequently, Qianlong Emperor became the emperor who owned the largest number of classic West Lake paintings in the history. Qianlong Emperor’s favor in appreciation of classic West Lake Paintings began in the sixteenth year of his reign (A.D. 1751) and remained unaltered until his later years. Not only appreciated those classic paintings and poems inspired by the beautiful scenery of West Lake, Qianlong emperor also created a great deal of West Lake Paintings and West Lake Poems. He particularly had a passion for representing the scenery of West Lake, not only giving orders to produce new West Lake paintings and copied the scenery of West Lake in royal gardens, Qianlong Emperor also created West Lake Paintings himself at his leisure and regarded it as a form of elegant recreation. During the sunset of his life, Qianlong Emperor even frequently painted West Lake to temper his will. However, not all of the West Lake paintings made by Qianlong Emperor were embodied in Shi Qu Bao Ji (石渠寶笈)— the compilers of Shi Qu Bao Ji were commanded not to record every piece of imperially produced work unless it is significant for promotion of Qianlong Emperor’s historical image. Besides presenting Qianlong Emperor’s preference for West Lake, in this study, the main stress falls on how the imperial taste affected the appreciation and production of West Lake paintings in Qianlong Court. It is noteworthy that those who produced West Lake paintings for Qianlong Emperor were not professional artist worked in Ruyiguan(如意館) and Zaobanchu(造辦處) or Roman Catholic missionaries, but were courtiers (from 2nd-rank first grade to full 7th-grade) excelling at literati-painting such as Dong Bang-Da, Zhang Ruo-Cheng, Zhang Zong-Cang, Xu Yang, Dong Gao and Guan Huai… etc. West Lake paintings produced in Qianlong Court have clearly shown that Qianlong Emperor’s taste in art was affected profoundly by the esthetic values of Han literati, and revealed the cooperation and interaction concerning art creation between Qianlong emperor and his courtiers.
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