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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4875

    Title: 黑外套與白襯衫:羅曼?布魯克絲的陽剛女性肖像研究;Black Coat and White Shirt: Masculinity in Female Portraits by Romaine Brooks
    Authors: 蔡雨辰;Yu-chen Tsai
    Contributors: 藝術學研究所
    Keywords: 羅曼?布魯克絲;女性陽剛特質;肖像;Romaine Brooks;female masculinity;portraiture
    Date: 2009-06-30
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:34:41 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract:   羅曼.布魯克絲為活躍於十九、二十世紀之交的女性藝術家,她的創作以肖像為主,本論文即聚焦在羅曼於1923、1924年間所創作的《自畫像》、《彼得,一位英國年輕女孩》、《烏娜,喬布里奇夫人》。這些作品分別描繪了羅曼、英國畫家葛路克和烏娜,她們身穿白襯衫、黑外套,透露出程度不一的陽剛氣質。多數研究指出易裝、女同志認同、女同志圖像、跨性別等關鍵詞彙與概念以解釋這些作品。然而,這些研究經常還未審慎釐清在1920年代的性別越界是什麼,及其與女同志認同的關係,便跳過這些層次,直接以「女同志」的理論框架解讀她們的服裝,這種解讀方式忽略了歷史特定性,和羅曼在創作這些肖像時的各種變因,以及肖像畫類自身的脈絡。   因此,女性陽剛特質應是描述這三張肖像時更準確的語彙,因為這個概念本身的多元面貌,打開了這些肖像的詮釋可能。在女性陽剛特質的光譜上,羅曼、烏娜、葛路克帶著她們自身與社會的關係,各占據了一個重要的位置。羅曼的陽剛回應了她在男性主導的藝術圈中,如何被視為嚴肅與正統的問題;烏娜的陽剛反映了1920年代的時尚特色;葛路克的陽剛則在光譜的邊界,從跨性別的觀點來看,她終身僅穿男裝的行為符合易裝的定義,但在大眾的接收上,她的陽剛形象是一種專業的象徵。   論文的第一章將從傳記出發,詳介羅曼的生平與創作。並分析她的早期創作,從中選取裸體和陽台這兩個主題,看出羅曼在裸體再現,以及空間與性別的關係上,展現什麼樣的傳統或另類之聲。第二章則正式進入研究主題,首先回到1920年代的英國與法國,嘗試重建彼時的女性時尚,將主角們放回當時的社會情境,還原這些看似相同的「男裝」及配件的複雜歷史與其中的差異。再則回顧十九世紀末的丹第(dandy)肖像,整理現有的圖像資料,建立羅曼描繪的服飾風格與當時男性藝術家之類似作品間的關係,檢視羅曼可能依循的再現傳統,以及這個傳統所蘊藏的豐富涵義。第三章從兩方面詮釋這批作品,一是性?別理論的應用,指出過去研究者因為去歷史地使用女同志、認同、可見性等概念分析羅曼的作品,而造成的闕漏,進而轉向女性陽剛特質,打開其他詮釋的豐富面貌。二是回到藝術史中,肖像、自畫像的脈絡。回顧二十世紀初的藝術環境,從教育體制、展覽空間及藝術評論著手,察看女性藝術家的機會與限制,並分析羅曼的自畫像所呈現的專業性。最後更將肖像材料拓展至肖像攝影,察看葛路克如何透過肖像攝影傳達她們專業的形象。 Romaine Brooks (1874-1970) is a vigorous female artist at the turn-of-the-century who specialized in portraiture. This thesis is to focus on her three works in 1923-24: "Self-portrait (1923)," "Peter, A Young English Girl (1923-24)" and "Una, Lady Troubridge (1924)." These works respectively portray Brooks, English painter Gluck and Una, who dress themselves with white shirts and black coats, revealing masculinity by heterogeneous extents. Most researches interpret these works through cross-dressing, lesbian identity, lesbian image, female masculinity, transgender. However, most of the researches omit to clarify what "gender transgression" meant in the 1920s and its relation with lesbian identity. Several layers are, as a result, neglected. Using "lesbian" as the theoretical framework to interpret their costume ignores historical particularity, variables when Brooks created these portraits, and contextualization of portraiture. Thus, "female masculinity" better describes these three works, for the variety of the concept uncovers possibilities in interpretation. On the spectrum of female masculinity, Brooks, Gluck and Una separately play crucial roles together with their relation with the society. Brooks's masculinity corresponds to the fact that how Brooks was regarded as a serious and orthodox artist; Una's masculinity reflects the fashion features in 1920s; as for Gluck, her masculinity is at the edge of the spectrum. From the aspect of transgender, Gluck, wearing only male costume all her life, well correspond to the definition of cross-dressing nowadays, but at that time in public reception, her masculinity turns out to be a symbol of professional. Based on the biography of Romaine Brooks, the first chapter gives a detailed introduction to her lifeand works. Through analyzing Brooks's early works and singling out two elements-nudity and balcony, I examine her efforts in continuing tradition and making innovation about the nude, space, and gender. The second chapter attempts to rebuild the contemporary fashion history for women in the context of England and France in the 1920s and to place all protagonists back to their historical positions, which accordingly reveal the complex history of the seemingly ordinary clothing and accessories. I also trace back dandy portraits in the end of the 19th century to point to the relation between the styles both in Brooks’s works and in works of male artists of the time, to examine the tradition of representation, and to discuss the richness of this tradition. In the third chapter, two methodologies are provided: one is the application of sexuality theory, which indicates the flaws in previous researches which ahistorically and exclusively employ concepts such as lesbian, identity, visibility in analyzing Brooks’s works. This chapter turns to female masculinity as a new perspective to various interpretations. The other method is looking at the portraiture and self-portraiture in the context of art history. Educational system, exhibiting space, and art commentary disclose female artists’ opportunities and limitations in the context of the early 20th century. This thesis analyzes the professionalism in Brooks’s portraits and, furthermore, extends the scope to portrait photography so as to take a closer look on how Gluck “portraits” their professional images through photography.
    Appears in Collections:[藝術學研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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