Long-term car pooling is defined as the sharing of a private vehicle by more than one user who need to reach a destination following a semicommon route between the individuals' points of origin and destination in a specific period. In this paper, we employ a network flow technique to systematically develop a long-term many-to-many car pooling model. The model is formulated as a special integer multiple-commodity network flow problem. A Lagrangian relaxation-based algorithm is also developed to solve the model. The performance of the heuristic algorithm is evaluated by carrying out a case study using real data and suitable assumptions. The test results confirm the usefulness of the model and the heuristic algorithm and that they could be useful in practice.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS