A mobile mapping system (MMS) is developed based on a direct sensor orientation technique that integrates GPS/inertial measurement unit (IMU) and digital cameras. This system is capable of directly mapping geospatial information without the requirement of ground control. In this article, an MMS composed of two digital single-lens reflex cameras and an Applanix POS AV-510 (c) is described. There are several systematic errors that need to be calibrated before achieving the goal of direct georeferencing. These are related to lens distortion, the lever-arm between the GPS and the camera's perspective center, and the boresight misalignment angles between the IMU and the camera frame. Experimental results show that the calibration field is the major error source. However, with the designed system, we can achieve a maximum three-dimensional positioning error of less than 18.27 and 7.74 cm at distances 20 m using a single camera with parallel imaging and dual-cameras with convergent imaging, respectively. The results demonstrate that the potential of high-accuracy land-based M MS applications is promising.