Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified as a new reassortant strain of influenza A virus in April 2009 and led to an influenza pandemic. Accurate and timely diagnoses are crucial for the control of influenza disease. We developed a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence fiber-optic biosensor (LSPCF-FOB) which combines a sandwich immunoassay with the LSP technique using antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of S-OIVs. The detection limit of the LSPCF-FOB for recombinant S-OIV H1 protein detection was estimated at 13.9 pg/mL, which is 10(3)-fold better than that of conventional capture ELISA when using the same capture antibodies. For clinical S-OIV isolates measurement, meanwhile, the detection limit of the LSPCF-FOB platform was calculated to be 8.25 x 10(4) copies/mL, compared with 2.06 x 10(6) copies/mL using conventional capture ELISA. Furthermore, in comparison with the influenza A/B rapid test, the detection limit of the LSPCF-FOB for S-OIV was almost 50-fold in PBS solution and 25-fold lower in mimic solution, which used nasal mucosa from healthy donors as the diluent. The findings of this study therefore indicate that the high detection sensitivity and specificity of the LSPCF-FOB make it a potentially effective diagnostic tool for clinical S-OIV infection and this technique has the potential to be applied to the development of other clinical microbe detection platforms. (C) 2010 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.