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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/53554

    Title: 「農業學大寨」運動之研究(1964-1980);A Study on the Campaign of“Learning from Dazhai in Agriculture” (1964-1980)
    Authors: 廖心慧;Liaw,Shin-huey
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 陳永貴;周恩來;毛澤東;大寨;Zhou Enlai;Mao Zedong;Chen Yonggui;Dazhai
    Date: 2012-06-12
    Issue Date: 2012-09-11 17:54:12 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 大寨是山西省太行山麓的一個不到百戶的小農村,在陳永貴的領導下,於1960年代初期成為山西省的農業典範。1963年大寨遭遇洪災,但迅速的恢復生產,不僅村民的口糧沒有減少,繳交給國家的餘糧也沒有減少,自此大寨自力更生、艱苦奮鬥的精神傳遍中國大陸。毛澤東於1964年聽取山西省委第一書記陶魯笳的彙報後,在全中國大陸發起「農業學大寨」運動的號召。此外,周恩來於1964年12月的〈政府工作報告〉提倡大寨經驗,大寨成為在「人民公社」制度下,農業成功發展的樣板,也藉此宣揚「人民公社」的優越性。受到大寨成功經驗的鼓舞與中共高層的指示,全國各地掀起了一股學大寨的熱潮,並於各地建設「大寨式」的農村,大寨成為農業戰線上的一面紅旗。1966年「文化大革命」爆發後,大寨從「生產樣板」轉變為「政治樣板」,強調階級鬥爭、兩條路線的鬥爭,走上了極左的路線,嚴重影響了農村發展。陳永貴推動「農業學大寨」運動,於1975年躍居國務院副總理一職。但是「文化大革命」結束時,農村生活卻沒有獲得有效改善,加上鄧小平所提倡的「實踐是檢驗真理的唯一標準」成為政治上的主流,於是「農業學大寨」運動也被徹底檢討。因此陳永貴於1980年9月辭去國務院副總理,而牽動8億農民、歷時16年的「農業學大寨」運動也於1980年黯然落幕。Dazhai, a small village of less than 100 households, is located at the foot of Taihang Mountain in Shanxi Province. In the early 1960s, it became an agricultural model village in Shanxi Province led by Chen Yonggui. In 1963, the village suffered a severe flood, but it was restored to its production very soon. There was not a food shortage in the village at all, and more even there was surplus stock to share with the state. Thereafter, Dazhai’s spirit of self-reliance and hard-struggle spread throughout Mainland China.In 1964, after listening to the report of Tao Lujia, the First Secretary of Shanxi Province, Mao Zedong called “Learn from Dazhai in Agriculture”countrywide. Besides, Premier Zhou Enlai summed up and declared Dazhai’s experiences in his “Report on the Work of Government” in December, 1964. Under the policy of promoting the “People’s Communes” system, Dazhai became a model of successful agricultural development, for advertising the superiority of the “People’s Communes”. Because of Dazhai’s successful experiences and the direction from the top government, a wave of “Learning from Dazhai” swept all over the country, and Dazhai-type villages were built everywhere. Dazhai represented a “Red Banner” in agriculture. Since the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution” in 1966, Dazhai evolved from an agricultural productive model into a political model. The campaign trended to “extreme political Left”, and advocated “Class Struggle” and “Struggle between two Lines”. It influenced the development of rural villages seriously.In 1975, Chen Yonggui was promoted to vice Premier because he led this campaign. But the rural lives were not improved at the end of the “Great Proletarian Culture Revolution”. Furthermore, “Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth”, supported by Deng Xiaoping, became the main stream, then the campaign of“Learning from Dazhai in Agriculture”was criticized completely. Thus, Chen Yonggui resigned from the vice Premier in September, 1980. The Campaign of“Learning from Dazhai in Agriculture”involved 800 millions peasants, lasted for 16 years, and ended in 1980.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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