客家研究近年蓬勃發展，但是對於目前在認同方式，與調查結果的研究裡，始終未能真正反映東部客家的情形，顯見東部客家的研究，需要從地域特殊性要素的觀點來處理。本論文接著以對照於西部客家在歷史發展背景、接受客家文化運動之動員程度，以及當代東部因為制度產生變革後的影響三方面來看，以了解東部客家在族群認同上的發展情形。 本研究主要分為三部分：(一)歷史的發展：從客家主要地域的形成，對應晚近東部地域的發展情形，進而了解當代對於東部地區的認識，並從傳統對於認同研究的角度來看，研究田野地區的客家人在血緣、語言、婚姻、文化上的態度。(二)接受客家文化運動的程度：從客家還我母運動的發生，一直到因運動動員所產生的影響，運用文獻說明東部一直未被客家文化運動所滲透。(三)當代東部形塑的客家認同：隨著客委會、客家電視的相繼出現，全國在中央制度產生變革之後，直接受到來自由上而下的運動影響，東部過去未受客家文化運動洗禮，卻在當代直接和全國的客家人一同接受動員。雖然相同的動員會有類似的趨合力，但是由於地域的因素，反映東部客家和其他客家地域所不同的認同想法 Hakka studies in Taiwan have developed rapidly over the past few years. Most Recent Hakka research, however, cannot really reflect the situations of Hakka in eastern Taiwan. Specific regional characteristics are essential in understanding the eastern Hakka. This thesis focuses on the ethnic identity of Hakka people in eastern Taiwan. I propose to explore the unique situation of Hakka in eastern Taiwan from three aspects: 1) a comparison of history and community development between Hakka in the western and eastern Taiwan; 2) the differential involvement of Hakka Cultural Movement of the 1980s between Hakka people in the two regions; and 3) the influences of contemporary institutional establishments of Hakka affairs on Hakka in eastern Taiwan. The thesis consists of three major parts. First, I explore the historical formation of Hakka community in different regions of Taiwan. The historical trajectories of Hakka communities in western Taiwan during the past three hundred years and during the past hundred years in eastern Taiwan are considered to be one of the major factors in understanding the contemporary ethnic identity of the Hakka in eastern Taiwan. The traditional approach of an essentialist assumption of ethnic identity was applied to understand Hakka’s attitudes toward language, marriage and culture. Second, the degree of differential exposure and involvement in the Hakka Cultural Movement, especially in the 1988 Rally for “Give Me Back My Mother Tongue (還我母語大遊行),” between people in the two regions was explored. Through studies of extant literature as well as interviews, I find out that the Hakka ethnic movement had little influence on Hakka in eastern Taiwan. Third, with regards to contemporary resurgence of Hakka Identity in the eastern Taiwan, I think the recent institutional changes in the Hakka affairs play important roles. The formation of the Council for Hakka Affairs at Executive Yuan, and the broadcasting of a Hakka TV channel, and other changes have great impact on the eastern Hakka people. They are exposed to a top-down Hakka cultural movement for the first time, and their unique ethnic identity was formed as a result.