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    題名: 花蓮地區客語阿美語接觸研究;Hakka and Amis language contact in Hualien
    作者: 廖致苡;Chih-i Liao
    貢獻者: 客家語文研究所
    關鍵詞: 語言態度;南島語;阿美語;客家語;語言接觸;共通語;Austronesian language;language attitude;Lingua Francas;Amis language;Hakka language;language contact
    日期: 2009-06-26
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 10:04:50 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 花蓮地區客家與阿美兩族長久以來混居、通婚平常,部份阿美族人能說客語及客家人能說阿美語,本文以此為研究主題,探討「阿美客家語」和「客家阿美語」的特殊變異。 「阿美客家語」由於受到南島語無送氣音的影響,/ts/、/t/、/p/、/k/四組字不分送氣不送氣,大多以不送氣代替送氣者多;第二,客語陽聲、陰聲及入聲韻尾變異,有/-p/、/-t/、/-k/混淆或韻尾增減現象;第三,阿美客家語吸收了當地客語環境的特色,四縣腔海陸腔合併使用。「客家阿美語」由於無法掌握阿美語特殊的輔音,因此以客語慣用的輔音取代,如/l/取代舌尖閃音/?/,字尾的咽喉塞音/?/則直接省略,另有自創的字尾/l/,似國語語尾助詞/-了/、/-啦/。詞彙方面在客語中發現兩個阿美語詞彙已被當地客家人廣為使用,其中阿美語[tam?au]在客語有四縣、海陸兩腔調的對應,字義由「人類」引申為「朋友」;而阿美語中尚未有明確的客語詞彙存在,在第四章僅以相似詞推測可能為客語的依據。 第五章語言態度說明客語和阿美語接觸後,相互影響不大的結果,在於共通語的阻斷和兩族群社會地位所至,發音人的語言環境改變、使用對象等,皆是影響語言態度的因素,而語言態度正是客語和阿美語接觸後,滲入深與淺的主要條件。 如今花蓮地區通行國語和閩南語,客語及阿美語都面臨語言危機,母語的保存艱辛何況是外語,因此花蓮地區語言接觸的現象漸趨式微,本研究將「阿美客家語」及「客家阿美語」完整分析紀錄,作為往後考證語言接觸的重要記載。 In Hualien, it has been a long time since Hakka and Amis people live together and intermarriage with each other. Part of the Hakka can speak the language of Amis, and vice versa, so that we have interest in exploring the contact between both language. In this research, we termed Amis language spoken by Hakka people “Hakka-Amis”, and “Amis-Hakka”, Hakka spoken by Amis. Phonologically, “Amis-Hakka” has three main distinct variation: First, due to the feature that there is no aspirate in Austronesian languages, (Amis is one of which), Amis adjust /ts’/, /p’/, /t’/, /k’/ to be /ts/, /p/, /t/, /k/ when they speak Hakka. Second, mixed usage of the ending in “Amis-Hakka”, /-p/、/-t/、/-k/ confusion for example. Third, “Amis-Hakka” in a sense combines two Hakka sub-dialects: Sisien and Hailu. On the other hand, “ Hakka-Amis” has substitutions for the special consonants in Amis: /l/ for the flap /?/ and /l?(which sounds like 了 “le” or 啦 “la” in Mandarin Chinese) for/-?/. As to lexicon, there are two Amis words in Hualien Hakka language as we examined. Amis [tam?au], which indicates “human” is used both in Sisen and Hailu, and the meaning is extended to “friends”. In Amis, no explicit loan word is discovered in this research, only that there are some “potential loan words” similar in sounds to Hakka. In fact, according to the result of our research, Hakka and Amis have no strong influence on each other, and “language attitude” in Chapter 5 explains why. Lingua Franca and the social status of both peoples are two factors that forms different language attitude which results in little influence between the two languages. Authoritative Mandarin Chinese and Min dialect (so-called “Taiwanese”) become much more popular in Hualien; on the contrast, languages of Hakka and Amis are nearly endangered. Hakka and Amis have a hard time protecting their mother language, not to say “Amis-Hakka”and “Hakka-Amis”, which are “second language” separately to Amis and Hakka. Consequently, seldom phenomenon of language contact is seen. Nevertheless, this research aims to provide a complete record of “Amis-Hakka” and “Hakka-Amis”, expecting to be an important document showing the evidence of language contact in Hualien.
    顯示於類別:[客家語文研究所] 博碩士論文

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