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|Title: ||日本統治臺灣時期漁船遭難之研究;A Study on Shipwreck in Taiwan in the Japanese Colonial Pperiod|
|Keywords: ||海難;漁船;遭難;Fish craft;Shipwreck|
|Issue Date: ||2013-03-25 16:21:51 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: || 臺灣四周海水環繞，歷史發展與海洋關係密切。船舶是航空業未發達前，臺灣對外重要的交通工具。然，臺灣特殊的氣候，夏季為颱風侵襲必經之路、冬季有強烈東北季風，造成海上風浪險惡，船隻航行困難，容易發生船難。臺灣歷史上，不乏許多海難的發生。 漁業與農業都是靠天吃飯的產業，但海上作業的漁夫，比起農夫常因海上氣候不穩而發生海難，威脅生命及財產的安全，臺灣漁業發展上有不少事例。鑑於學界對臺灣歷史上漁船遭難研究成果很少，故本文以日本統治臺灣時期漁船遭難主題，探討漁船遭難的成因、總督府的預防及災後救助問題。首先利用1896至1944年《臺灣日日新報》刊載有關在臺灣沿岸遭難及自臺灣出發於海上遭難的漁船新聞，將新聞分為三時段：1896-1910年、1911-1931年、1932-1944年。分析各時間內漁船遭難季節、海域、原因的變化。漁船海難易在冬季發生。較易發生地點隨日治時期漁業發展的海域，初期集中北部海域，至大正昭和年間擴展至全臺灣海域及南洋漁場。漁船遇難的原因，初期以自然的天候、海象為主，大正昭和年間因動力漁船的使用及其他人為造成因素，使海難原因增加如：漁船機械故障、海賊襲擊、誤進他國領海遭逮捕、戰爭導致傷亡等。 其次，針對漁船海難的發生，臺灣總督府有何預防措施？首先是法規的建立及水產講習會的實施。法規的設立，針對漁船建造、設備及船員應具備之航海技能的規定。透過水產講習會向漁船乘組員講授預防海難的知識及新法規之概要，達到政策的宣達。第二，天氣測候網的建立與漁船遭難的預防。經由氣象預測、沿岸港口暴風警報標誌的運作、海上船舶利用無線電信獲得各締約國氣象訊息等，皆有助漁船海上作業時避免天候帶來的災難。第三，預防海難的硬體建設。包含興建燈塔、避難港，及陸地與船舶間無線電信設備的裝設。 最後，漁船遭難後對遭難者救助，分為漁船的海上救援及對遭難者的救恤兩方面。漁船遭遇海難時透過沿岸居民發現遭難船隻，通報最近警察單位，派出救助船隻，並召集保甲、壯丁團前往遭難地搜救。遠洋漁船遭難者，透過行經船隻或所屬水產團體前往救助。若在水產團體無法救援的情況下，向海軍請求搜救。至於漁業者遭難後的救恤，分為水產團體的救恤事業及漁業保險兩項。其中，水產團體對漁船海難的救恤事業，在漁業者遭難、死亡、罹病時支付救恤金；此外亦規定所屬成員，負有救助遭難船之責任與義務。而漁業保險則是積極的預防措施，在漁船遇難後獲適當保障，恢復事業。關鍵字：漁船、遭難、海難Since Taiwan is surrounded by the sea, its history is closely related to marine activities. When the aviation industry was not popular, ships used to be the vital transportation for Taiwanese people. However, shipwrecks were often heard due to bad weather like typhoons in summer and strong monsoon in winter. Both farming and fishery are industries relying on weather greatly. However, fishermen seem to suffer from more risks working on the sea. Though there have been numerous cases of shipwrecks in the history, studies concerning them are rare to see. In this case, this study is aimed at discussing the causes of shipwrecks, the prevention policies of Taiwan Governor-General's Office, and the issues of shipwreck relief based on the shipwrecks taking place in the period of Japanese colonial Taiwan.This study firstly divides the news of coastal and offshore shipwrecks published by Taiwan daily News between 1896 and 1944 into three periods: 1896-1910, 1911-1931, and 1932-1944, to analyze their causes like seasons, waters, and regions. It concludes that the shipwrecks tend to occur in winter in the waters prosperous in accordance with the fishery development in the Japanese colonial period. Initially, the fishery was popular in the northern offshore area. Later on, it extended to the offshore areas surrounding Taiwan and the Southeast Asian waters. On the other hand, most of the shipwrecks were caused by the weather initially. However, after power fishing crafts were introduced in Taisho and Showa periods, human factors like mechanical issues, pirate attacks, wars, and breaking into other countries’ territory sea became the main cause of shipwrecks.Concerning the precautions of Taiwan Governor-General's Office, it established regulations and conducted workshops of marine activities. The former was mainly about the building of fishing crafts, equipment, and sailors’ sailing skills, while the latter was regarding the knowledge of shipwreck prevention and the promotion of new regulations. On the other hand, the establishment of weather report system and the operation of harbor warning signs were helpful as well in terms of shipwreck prevention. By collecting the information of weather forecast via radio, fishing crafts on the sea would be more likely to avoid the attack of natural disasters. Taiwan Governor-General’s Office also installed hardware like lighthouses, refuge harbors, and radio equipment to help prevent shipwrecks. Lastly, as to the shipwreck relief, it can be divided into fishing crafts rescue and victim relief. When people living in the coastal areas discovered fishing crafts in wreck, they would reported to the police immediately and summoned “hoko” and “zhuang-ding corps” to come to rescue. If the shipwreck took place on the sea, the fishermen may turn to other fishing crafts passing by or their marine associations for help. Moreover, they may also turn to the Marine for further help. On the other hand, marine associations would issue relief allowance to the shipwreck victims when they were ill or dead. Besides, marine associations would abide by regulations to rescue and help fishermen in shipwrecks. Also, fishery insurance is considered a practice of active precaution. It helps fishermen to recover from their tragedies and restore their career soon.Key word: Fish craft, Shipwreck|
|Appears in Collections:||[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文|
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