本文將以敘事學為分析工具，從克洛德‧布雷蒙(Claude Bremond)所提出的敘事可能模式(les possibles narratifs)來探討法國中世紀戲劇中的魔鬼角色，魔鬼在行動過程當中的選擇以及他和人類之間的密切關係。同時藉由分析魔鬼角色呈現的方式，更深入的剖析法國的中世紀戲劇。
The idea of evil is deeply rooted in the Christian society in medieval Europe and the devil is considered as the symbol of evil. The devil’s first appearance in the medieval religious drama aimed originally to give religious instruction. However, with the development of the secular drama, the cold, grim image of devil's role gradually brought in comic elements. In this transition period, how the role of devil is inserted in the religious drama without losing its social function is a problem worthy of investigation.
This thesis studies the devil’s role in the medieval French religious drama. With the help of The Logic of Narrative Possibilities established by Claude Bremond, we attempt to analyze the devil’s choices and decisions, as well as his close connection with human beings. By analyzing the representation of the devil, we aim to explore in depth his role in the narrative.
In the first chapter, with the analysis of the transformation of roles in the narrative structure (agent and patient), we strive to understand the motivation of the devil and how he makes use of the human desire in his evil acts.
The second chapter, in which the emphasis is put on the process of the devil’s evil acts, is divided into three parts. Firstly, we will discuss the master-servant relationship between Lucifer, the king of hell, and the devils. Secondly, based on the selected plays, we discern three strategies in the devil’s acts: temptation, seduction and negotiation. Finally, we analyze the frustrator, who, in the development of narrative, may cause the failure of the mission of the devil.
In the final chapter, we attempt to explore the ultimate result of the devil’s evil acts. According to The Logic of Narrative Possibilities, if one character decides to take actions, he may succeed or fail in his actions. When the devil successfully lead human beings astray, the temporary success of his action should be attributed to both the wish of the devil himself and the weakness of the human beings. However, owing to the intervention of God’s will, the devil’s failure is always inevitable.
Our study has shown that it is possible to apply the narratology to the analysis of the medieval French religious drama. With the theory of Claude Bremond, we understand more thoroughly the devil’s role in the narrative structure, his functions of instructions and eventually his symbolic role in the medieval Christian society.