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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/60719

    Title: 哀悼電影:《省道132》以及2000年後魁北克電影中的哀悼主題;Cin?ma de/en deuil : Route 132 et la repr?sentation du deuil dans le cin?ma qu?b?cois dans les ann?es 2000
    Authors: 林書媺;LIN,SHU-MEI
    Contributors: 法國語文學系
    Keywords: 魁北克電影;哀悼;閾境性;過程;潛力;Qu?b?cois cinema;mourning;liminality;passage;potentiality
    Date: 2013-07-23
    Issue Date: 2013-08-22 11:46:34 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 2000年以後,「哀悼」的主題湧現於魁北克電影中,本文稱之為「哀悼電影」。此類電影通常以孩童或青年的遽然死亡為起始,將整部影片浸潤於哀悼中。本文以《省道132》為主,輔以同時期其他的哀悼電影文本,探究2000年後魁北克電影中頻繁出現的哀悼主題。有別於過去的民族存亡與國族主義等試圖將悲劇與哀悼理解為民族歷史創傷徵候之類型論述,本文探討全球化情境下的哀悼再現可能具有的潛力。本文第一章耙梳哀悼在魁北克電影進程中的演變,其次描繪2000年以來哀悼再現的特徵以及其與過去之不同,並歸納出兩個特色:荒謬之死與回歸故土。在觀察眾多以歸途作為哀悼儀式的電影後,我們試圖理解土地與哀悼的關係,以此抵定使用透納(Victor Turner)之過渡性概念(liminality,又譯為「閾境性」)為研究方法。在談論土地與人的關係之前,第二章探討《省道132》中逃離城市作為面對荒謬之死的後續反應,試圖勾勒出現代性中對於死亡、荒謬、非理性等排他的理性壓迫,它如何構成哀悼者所處的荒謬情境,並且引發逃離城市以進行哀悼的需求。第三章專注於探討旅程、土地、哀悼之間的關係,在《省道132》的公路電影形式中分析移動與地景再現如何呈顯過渡性。電影中旅途所經之處乃魁北克公認的民族發源地,影片卻一反常例,不耽溺於呈現如歌般美好的傳統田園生活,反而不斷地移動,呈現土地的垂死狀態,以勾勒這些極具文化意義的地方,並且在旅程中具現其內在過渡性-?,依此得以超越過去城/鄉、今/昔之二元對立之意識形態。在此我們使用的除了過渡性概念外,還援引余蓮(Fran?ois Jullien)的溯源(ressourcer)、悉本尼(Daniel Sibony的「存在」(?tre)和「擁有」(avoir)之認同理論,以耙梳土地與認同之關係,並藉此理解哀悼與土地之關聯。如果荒謬之死粉碎個人原本認知之存在意義,那麼影片中再現的旅程與地景則擁有重構、乃至療癒破碎自我認同的潛力。相對於個人哀悼,與此情此景並置的,是對於土地的集體哀悼。電影作為媒介創造一個閾境性時空,使之介於現實與故事間,使觀眾得以在此進行對於土地之哀悼,藉著觀影的過程溯源,透過回顧與整合以面對全球化時代文化均質化的考驗。若土地本身為時間與歷史之載體──尤其影片中的土地往往極具文化與歷史意義──那麼第四章探討的便是時間與哀悼之關係。如悉本尼所言,認同是一種存在的狀態,而非擁有的狀態,然而要從擁有的模式過渡到存在的模式需要透過傳遞(transmission)。在本章中,我們將透過哀悼時間的再現,探討傳遞之可能以及傳遞是如何發生的。在此我們使用的是愛嘉欣斯基(Sylviane Agacinski)的「過程性」(passageret?)與德勒茲(Gilles Deleuze)承續柏格森(Henri Bergson)之時間概念,討論哀悼時間在脫除慣常的方向性與目的性後,時間成為一個容器得以涵納眾多時間層。並且藉此討論哀悼心理學中對於哀悼的解釋,在此哀悼不再如佛洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)所言是一種拋棄與遺忘的過程,而能夠成為一種與逝者關係的延續,一種記憶的方式。在個人哀悼中是如此,集體哀悼之整合也得以透過哀悼的反覆再現成為可能。本文最後援引阿岡本的「潛力」(potentiality)的觀念,解讀《省道132》終曲的未完結、蒙昧狀態,說明電影藉此使哀悼永遠停留在潛在中,因此永遠不進入實際界,也就永遠在重新整合與變化中。
    In the 2000s, the theme of mourning began to proliferate in the Qu?b?cois cinema. The “mourning cinema” (as I term it) often begins with the death of a child or an adolescent, immersing the entire film in a mournful atmosphere. This thesis takes Route 132 (among other mourning films) as the point of departure, to examine the recurrent theme of mourning in the 2000s Qu?b?cois cinema. Apart from previous nationalist criticism that perceived tragedy and mourning as the symptom or allegory of national(ist) trauma, this thesis investigates the representation of mourning and its potentiality in the age of globalization.The first chapter traces the role of mourning throughout the history of Qu?b?cois cinema. The representation of mourning in the 2000s films, differing from the previous era, is characterized by two motifs – absurd death and home returning. After observing the mourning films that anchors home returning as the ritual of mourning, methodologically I draw on anthropologist Victor Turner’s notion of liminality as the point of departure. Before proceeding to the relationship between man and the land, the second chapter investigates the fleeing from city as the reaction to the absurd death in Route 132. It contours how the exclusive, rationalist oppression of death, absurdity, irrationality, etc. by modernity constitutes the absurd milieu in which the mourner is situated, thus driving him/her out of the city.The third chapter concentrates on the relations between journey, land and mourning, and analyzes how liminality is cinematographically embodied in move- ment and landscape. Although the journey in the mourning cinema passes through the commonsensical origin of the Qu?b?cois nation, the films, contrary to convention, are not indulgent in representing an idyllic pastoral image of the tradition life. On the contrary, they would move incessantly representing the destitute (or even dying) state of land in their representations of these places with cultural significance. They incarnate the immanent liminality en route, whereby the dichotomy between city and countryside, between the present and the past could be transcended. Here, besides the concept of liminality, I also draw on Fran?ois Jullien’s theory of ressourcer, Daniel Sibony’s distinction between being (?tre) and having (avoir) to elucidate the relations between land, identity and mourning. If the absurd death shatters what one perceived and believed, then journey and land reconstruct, or even heal, the shattered identity, which is juxtaposed with the collective mourning for the land. As a media, cinema creates a liminal time and space at the interval between reality and fiction where the spectators could practice a collective mourning for the dying patrimonial land. In the age of globalization, the challenge posed by the homogenization of culture is confronted by filmic resourcing, through retrospection and integration.If the land is the bearer of time and history – especially when the land(scape) in the mourning cinema is often of great cultural and historical significance – then what chapter four examines is the relations between time and mourning. Identity, as Sibony claims, is a state of being instead of having. Yet to pass from the state of having to that of being requires a process of transmission. In this chapter, through analyzing the representation of the time of mourning, I investigate how this transmission takes place. Drawing on Sylviane Agacinski’s passageret? and Gilles Deleuze’s notion of time- space, the thesis argues that the time (of mourning), after being rid of the customary orientation and purpose, becomes a container that contains multiple time-layers. Here mourning is no longer a process of forsaking and forgetting as it is for Sigmund Freud, but rather a continuation of the bond with the deceased, a way to remember. This applies to individual mourning, yet the integration of collective mourning is also made possible through the reiteration of mourning. Finally, Agamben’s notion of “potentiality” is appropriated to interpret the opening, opaque ending in Route 132, whereby mourning remains in the potential, never realized in the Real, and thus remaining always in reintegration and change.
    Appears in Collections:[法國語文研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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