本研究旨在以內外在參照架構模式（Internal/External frame of reference model，簡稱I/E模式）與大魚小池效應（Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect，簡稱BFLPE）所合併之合併模型來檢驗東西方五國其四年級與八年級學生的學業成就與學業自我概念之關係。此外，更提出三個容易被大型資料庫研究者所忽略的統計特質，並適當的應用在本研究之統計分析中，以確保研究結果之準確性。資料庫來源為2011年國際數學與科學教育成就趨勢調查（TIMSS 2011），樣本包括四個東方國家: 台灣、日本、香港與南韓；西方國家則以美國作為代表。分析方法包括敘述統計、皮爾森績差相關以及多層次結構方程模型。研究結果發現: （1）相較於美國，東亞國家的學生，普遍在國中階段會比國小階段有著明顯更低的自我概念；（2）美國學生的學業自我概念普遍比東亞國家學生高；（3）整體而言，學生學業成就與自我概念之關係為顯著正向相關，而此關係的強度，八年級皆大於四年級；（4）大多數模型皆符合I/E模式的預測，且大多數國家呈現了八年級的預測力比四年級來的大的趨勢；（5）東西方各國之科學與數學皆出現了顯著的BFLPE，且各國的數學BFLPE程度都比科學來的嚴重、八年級普遍比四年級來的嚴重。最後，本研究根據研究結果提出對教育實務及未來研究的建議。 The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between student achievement and self-concept of science/mathematics by using a combined model consisting of the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) and the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) models in four high-performing East Asian countries and the USA as a representative Western country. The samples were taken from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 fourth-grade and eighth -grade student data in Taiwan, Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and the USA. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) were used to analyze the relationship between student academic self-concept and academic achievement at different grade levels and in countries with different cultures. The results suggest that the combined model fitted the data well, and most of the predictions of the combined model were supported by the data from the five countries. The self-concept of American students is higher than that of East Asian students. In general, the correlation between achievement and self-concept is positively significant, and this correlation is larger for grade eight students. Furthermore, the results also show that the effects of the BFLPE and the I/E were generally larger for grade eight students and for math. Finally, implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.