圖形分解是圖論中的一個非常重要課題。 因為它可以連接組合，代數和其他數學結構。 另一方面，圖分解的結果可以應用在編碼理論，實驗設計，計算機和通信網絡等領域。 反魔圖是圖形的一種標號。一般圖形標號是將圖形內的頂點 或邊給予對應的一個整數值的標號， 或兩者兼而有之。圖形標號推出在20世紀60年代中後期, 在這幾十年,圖形標號的研究論文已超過1500篇。 圖形標號結果已應用在計算機和通信網絡，應用統計學的研究，與一些設計科學等領域。 Graph decomposition is an important subject of graph theory. Many combinatorial, algebraic, and other mathematical structures are linked to decompositions of graphs, which gives their study a great theoretical importance. On the other hand, results on graph decompositions can be applied in coding theory, design of experiments, computer and communication networks, and other fields. Nowadays, graph decomposition ranks the most prominent area in graph theorey, even in combinatorics. A graph is called an antimagic graph, if there exists an edge labeling which is an assignment of integers to the vertices or edges, or both, subject to certain conditions. Graph labelings were first introduced in the late 1960s. In the intervening years dozens of graph labelings techniques have been studied in over 1500 papers. Graph labeling can be applied in computer and communication networks, applied statistics research, and some design science other fields.