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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/61710


    Title: 清代澳門海關(1800-1911)-以貿易為中心之探討;Macau Customs in Qing Dynasty: the Discussion Centered on Trading(1800-1911)
    Authors: 梁學文;Leong,hok-man
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 澳門;澳門貿易;粵海關;澳門總口;拱北關;Macau;Macau Trading;Canton Customs;Macau Customs;Lappa Customs
    Date: 2013-08-19
    Issue Date: 2013-10-08 15:32:12 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 18、19世紀的澳門,是中國對外重要的港口,清前期一口通商的政策,確立澳門的貿易地位。葡萄牙從明代開始經營澳門,也獲得明、清兩代政權的默許,當時西歐各國均前往澳門進行買賣。1845年以後,澳門的貿易開始發生變化,中國經歷鴉片戰爭以後,東南沿岸港口也慢慢被開放為通商口岸,其貿易地位也因此逐漸被香港所取代,同時,它的貿易型態亦慢慢轉變。
    粵海關時期,澳門受到清政府相當的保護,從船鈔、商品及貿易船隻等方面都給予澳門特別的優惠,讓葡萄牙獲得壟斷中國對外貿易,當時的澳門貿易相當繁盛,也是各國商人唯一的住所,它透過與廣州的一口通商貿易,建立出無可取代的地位。
    拱北關時期,澳門的貿易內容開始轉變,受到其它港口的競爭,澳門透過把鴉片運入內地,發展出所謂「粵西南經濟中心」,亦即是該區域的轉運港。同時,澳門長年受到兩江流域(西江和珠江)的泥土淤積,及西江流域沿岸港口開放,使得澳門漸漸失去其競爭力。
    At the 18th and 19th century, Macau was one of the main international freight ports of china. The Canton System policy at the early Qing dynasty had established the trade status of Macau. Portugal began governing in Macau from the Ming Dynasty, and this was also regime acquiesced by Ming and Qing dynasty, when Western European countries started trading from Macau.

    Since 1845, Macao's trading pattern began to change, after China has experienced the First Opium War, the southeast coast was also slowly being opened as treaty ports to foreign countries and thus Macau's trade status gradually replaced by Hong Kong, meanwhile, its trade pattern was also slowly changing.

    During Canton customs period, the Qing government had given Macau considerable protection from (ship's tax), commodities and trade vessels, etc which gave Portugal a monopoly of China's foreign trade. Macau was a very busy trading port at that time and it was the only place for foreign businessmen to stay. Through trading with Guangzhou, Macau had established an irreplaceable position.

    During Lappa customs period, Macau's trading pattern started to change due to other competing ports has opened. By transporting opium through mainland, it developed a so-called "economic center of southwestern Guangdong" that is, the region transshipment port. At the same time, Macau was long affected by the two river basin (West River and Pearl River) soil siltation and other ports along the West River, making Macau gradually lost its competitiveness.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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