|Abstract: ||台灣地處副熱帶，並位於環太平洋地震帶上，故每年都有遭受颱風、豪雨、乾旱、寒流及地震等天然災害侵襲之虞，根據歷年資料統計，平均每年約有3~4個颱風侵襲台灣，而發生規模大於5的地震為平均 24.4次。「九二一地震」後，政府整合災害防救方案及相關辦法之精神，於2000年7月頒佈「災害防救法」，而在「莫拉克風災」後，修訂「災害防救法」第34條：發生重大災害時，國軍部隊應主動協助災害防救，且國防部將災害防救列為國軍的中心任務之一。|
本研究透過分析我國「九二一地震」後至近年來曾經派遣軍隊支援之災害，針對其國軍救災兵力分析、後備部隊教育召集編組訓練及支援災害防救召集法令檢討，並據以提出相關規劃及改善建議，例如：後備軍人災害防救專長編管、替代役及民防人員協力災害防救、成立專業防救災後備部隊、災防人力資料庫建立及後備部隊結合全民防衛動員機制發揮實際功效等。; Taiwan is located both in the circum-Pacific seismic zone and sub-tropical regions. The geography location causes Taiwan to suffer from natural disasters, including typhoons, heavy rains, droughts, cold waves, and earthquakes. According to the statistic data, each year in Taiwan, there is average of three to four typhoons attacks. Earthquakes with magnitudes 5 hit Taiwan about 24.4 times a year. After the 921 earthquake, government sorted out series of disaster prevention programs and related arrangements, and then “Disaster Prevention and Protection Act” was issued in July 2000. After Typhoon Morakot occurred, Article 34 in “Disaster Prevention and Protection Act” was revised: “When a major disaster occurs, the armed forces should give assistance actively. Ministry of National Defense should consider the disaster prevention as one of the main tasks of the armed forces.”
However, after the following rules : “Elite Project”, “Elite Progress Project”and “Super Elite Project”, the number of the standing army reduces significantly. In case of a major disaster, it is difficult to assign the standing army between the training mission and the disaster relief. Therefore, how to use reservists plays an important role, including assigning positions of the numerous reservists, carrying out the education of disaster prevention, organizing the specialties of the reservists, and enhancing reservists' ability to assist whenever disasters occur. For the specialist reservists, a new skill is required; for our country, utilizing reservists brings positive affect.
Through this study, the author tried to analyze the disaster reliefs which the national armed forces attended since the 921 earthquake. The analysis contains armed forces military strength and weakness, organization of reservists training and review of the Disaster Prevention Act. According to the analysis, the author proposed several relevant plans and improvement recommendations: the management and training of reservists' specialty, substitute and civil defense personnel disaster prevention plan, the establishment of the professional disaster relief team of reservists, the human resource database of the disaster reliefs and, the combination of the reservists and the people for disaster relief.