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|Title: ||康德的《單纯理性限度内的宗教》之哲學研究;The study of the philosophy of the Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason by Immanuel Kant|
|Keywords: ||康德;善;惡;意志;良知;道德法則;上帝;Kant;Good;Evil;Will;Conscience;Moral Law;God|
|Issue Date: ||2014-04-02 15:40:17 (UTC+8)|
本文結論中分為：什麼決定「善」、「惡」，以及康德宗教哲學的作用。本文認為什麼決定「善」、「惡」呢？由於「惡」影響自由的運用，所以「惡」決定善惡的成分較大。康德宗教哲學的作用則在於藉由「良知」的辨識防止道德哲學崩解，再藉由「愛」的崇敬，企圖解決「惡」的問題。; The most important question in Kant's philosophy of religion is how to realize the nature of man and the kingdom of God. The nature of man is divided into the good and the evil. The good is to do one's duty merely for the sake of duty; however the evil is a kind of propensity. Only by the good could we conquer this propensity, and the individual good could display durably its function in the community of the “true church”. The true church is a community of common good which consists of a group of people. This community exists for the sake of the prevention of evil and the development of the good. In order to honor God appropriately in the church, it should have a rational cultus. In contrast, some cultus which violate the moral law and do not please God could be called “spurious cultus”. We can only avoid a spurious cultus by employing our conscience.
The second part of this article is formed by the probe in the light of the criticism on the the good and the conscience proposed by certain scholars. The critiques on the principle of good of Kant were mainly presented by Friedrich Schiller, G. W. F. Hegel and Fred Feldman: sensibility, particularity and extreme moralism. We could only avoid the production of the extreme moralism by means of the conscience. The criticism in connection with the conscience was first proposed by Arthur Schopenhauer, who considered it as a superstition. Later, Hegel has pointed out that the conscience could lead to the issue of the common root of the good and of the evil. Finally, Johann Gottlieb Fichte has presented the theory of moral community to solve the problem resulted by the good in the philosophy of Hegel. However, Kant had already proposed the moral community described by Fichte in his Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason.
The conclusion is divided into two parts: what is it to determine the good and the evil, and the application of Kant's philosophy of religion. What is it to determine the good and the evil by this article? Because the evil affects the exercise of our liberty, it has greater power to determine the good and the evil. The function of Kant's philosophy of religion is to prevent the collapse of ethics by the identification of conscience, and to try to solve the problem of evil by the adoration of love.
|Appears in Collections:||[哲學研究所] 博碩士論文|
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