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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/63495

    Title: 康德的《單纯理性限度内的宗教》之哲學研究;The study of the philosophy of the Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason by Immanuel Kant
    Authors: 鄧振岢;DENG,CHEN-KE
    Contributors: 哲學研究所
    Keywords: 康德;;;意志;良知;道德法則;上帝;Kant;Good;Evil;Will;Conscience;Moral Law;God
    Date: 2014-01-24
    Issue Date: 2014-04-02 15:40:17 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 康德的宗教哲學最重要的問題,在於「人的本性」及「上帝之國」如何現實現。「人的本性」分為「善」與「惡」,「善」即是為義務而義務;「惡」即是一種「傾向」。要勝過「傾向」唯有藉著「善」,而個人的善又必須在社群的「真正的教會」中才能持續發揮作用。「真正的教會」是由一群人組成的共善群體,這個群體是為防止「惡」的擴散及發展「善」而存在的。為了能夠在教會中合適的尊崇上帝,其內部要有合理的事奉。相反的,一些違反道德法則且不討上帝喜悅的「事奉」,可以稱為「偽事奉」。要避免「偽事奉」,唯有藉由人的「良知」。
    本文結論中分為:什麼決定「善」、「惡」,以及康德宗教哲學的作用。本文認為什麼決定「善」、「惡」呢?由於「惡」影響自由的運用,所以「惡」決定善惡的成分較大。康德宗教哲學的作用則在於藉由「良知」的辨識防止道德哲學崩解,再藉由「愛」的崇敬,企圖解決「惡」的問題。;   The most important question in Kant's philosophy of religion is how to realize the nature of man and the kingdom of God. The nature of man is divided into the good and the evil. The good is to do one's duty merely for the sake of duty; however the evil is a kind of propensity. Only by the good could we conquer this propensity, and the individual good could display durably its function in the community of the “true church”. The true church is a community of common good which consists of a group of people. This community exists for the sake of the prevention of evil and the development of the good. In order to honor God appropriately in the church, it should have a rational cultus. In contrast, some cultus which violate the moral law and do not please God could be called “spurious cultus”. We can only avoid a spurious cultus by employing our conscience.
    The second part of this article is formed by the probe in the light of the criticism on the the good and the conscience proposed by certain scholars. The critiques on the principle of good of Kant were mainly presented by Friedrich Schiller, G. W. F. Hegel and Fred Feldman: sensibility, particularity and extreme moralism. We could only avoid the production of the extreme moralism by means of the conscience. The criticism in connection with the conscience was first proposed by Arthur Schopenhauer, who considered it as a superstition. Later, Hegel has pointed out that the conscience could lead to the issue of the common root of the good and of the evil. Finally, Johann Gottlieb Fichte has presented the theory of moral community to solve the problem resulted by the good in the philosophy of Hegel. However, Kant had already proposed the moral community described by Fichte in his Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason.
    The conclusion is divided into two parts: what is it to determine the good and the evil, and the application of Kant's philosophy of religion. What is it to determine the good and the evil by this article? Because the evil affects the exercise of our liberty, it has greater power to determine the good and the evil. The function of Kant's philosophy of religion is to prevent the collapse of ethics by the identification of conscience, and to try to solve the problem of evil by the adoration of love.
    Appears in Collections:[哲學研究所] 博碩士論文

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