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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/63733


    Title: 紅衛兵運動及思想之研究;Research on the Movement and the Thoughts of the Red Guards
    Authors: 吳明玉;Wu,Ming-yu
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 上山下鄉;文化大革命;紅衛兵;老紅衛兵;資產階級反動路線;造反派紅衛兵;Cultural Revolution;rebels;the Old Red Guards;the Red Guards
    Date: 2009-07-13
    Issue Date: 2014-05-08 15:28:51 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 紅衛兵運動及思想之研究
               摘要
      文化大革命初期,紅衛兵運動席捲整個中國大陸,一開始由高幹子弟組成的老紅衛兵極力「破四舊、立四新」、「橫掃一切牛鬼蛇神」,但當文革方向轉變為「批判資產階級反動路線」後,造成老紅衛兵的沒落、造反派紅衛兵的崛起。紅衛兵運動中抄家、打人、武鬥的頻繁,造成中國社會的大動盪,因此,當毛澤東利用紅衛兵打倒劉少奇、鄧小平的目的達成後,號召知識青年「上山下鄉」,主要目的就是讓各主要紅衛兵組織的成員去「上山下鄉」,結束紅衛兵運動。
      紅衛兵運動雖然只有短短的兩年,但醞釀出許多思潮,例如:老紅衛兵為維持紅衛兵純潔身分而發出的「血統論」、反對「血統論」而出現的〈出身論〉、第一個反抗文革的紅衛兵組織「聯動」、要求毛澤東實現「巴黎公社」諾言的「省無聯」思潮、因林彪事件影響而出現要求民主與法制的「李一哲」大字報等,再再顯示了紅衛兵開始走向獨立思考、檢視文革,正視中國政治體制的問題。
      雖然文革期間的「上山下鄉」,使得許多紅衛兵沒有辦法繼續接受教育,成為中國社會「垮掉的一代」,但也有許多紅衛兵,因經歷過文革的動盪、面對殘酷的政治鬥爭、中國社會落後貧困的真相,而覺醒成為「思考的一代」。
    關鍵字:文化大革命、紅衛兵、老紅衛兵、資產階級反動路線、造反派紅衛兵、上山下鄉
    ;Research on the Movement and the Thoughts of the Red Guards
    Abstract
      A wave of the Red Guards movement swept the whole China during the initial stage of the Cultural Revolution. At the begining, the old Red Guards composed of the high level cadres’ childern endeavor to break the four olds and foster the four news, even to destory monsters and freeks. But after the direction of the Cultural Revolution is changed into bourgeois reationary line, it caused not only the downfall of the old Red Guards but the rise of the rebels. The great turbulence of the Chinese society followed that taking ransacking people’s home and the violence are occured frequently in the Red Guards movement. Therefore, when Mao Zedong achieved the purpose that he utilized the Red Guards overthrow Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, he gave the direction of up to the mountains and down to the villages to urban youths. It lead to the end of the Red Guards movement by urban youths themselves.
      Although the movement of the Red Guards lasted only for two years, it aroused many thoughts. Take the followings for example. On Blood Lineage , initiated by the old Red Guards to maintain the pure identity of the Red Guards. On Birth, in opposition to On Blood Lineage. The United Action Committee, the first organization of the Red Guards against the Cultural Revolution. The claim of Sheng Wu Lian (the Union of the Proletariat of Hunan Province ), asking Mao Zedong to carry out the Paris Commune. The posters of Li yizhe (Li zhengtian, Chen yiyang, Wang xizhe), affected by the Lin Biao affair, asked for democracy and legal institutions. These all showed that the Red Guards got to have independent thoughts. They started to examine the Cultural Revolution and confronted the problems of the political systems in China.
      Up to the mountains and down to the villages, one of the claims of the Cultural Revolution, made many Red Guards drop out of schools. Therefore, they became the lost generation in the Chinese society. However, because of having gone through the turbulent Cultural Revolution and cruel political struggles, many Red Guards realized the poverty of China. These also made them to become the thinking generation.
    Keywords: Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards, the Old Red Guards, rebels, 
         bourgeois reactionary line, up to the mountains and down to the villages
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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