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    题名: 論台灣中小企業少量多樣客製化的策略 — 以A公司經營醫療器材為例
    作者: 吳上能;Wu,Shang-Neng
    贡献者: 管理學院高階主管企管碩士班
    关键词: 中小企業;少量多樣客製化;醫療器材產業;customization of small and large varieties;Medical equipment industry;small-and-middle-sized enterprises
    日期: 2007-05-10
    上传时间: 2014-05-08 15:29:13 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 60年代起,臺灣經濟起飛,以OEM代工之中小企業蓬勃興起;至90年代新興國家崛起,尤其中國大陸政府鼓勵外資投資,土地取得容易,人力充沛,工資低廉,十三億人口潛在消費市場之誘因,中大型企業紛紛西進遷移,台灣中小企業優勢漸失,面對強勁的國際競爭,使台灣產業環境趨於惡化,長此下去若不盡速變革,台灣中小企業將逐漸消失。本論文以A公司為例,主要探討,在經營環境驟變之下,台灣中小企業如何利用現有資源找出存活變革之道及其因應策略。
    個案A公司是由經營傳統大量生產消費性電子產品轉向經營少量多樣客製化醫療器材,兩種不同性質的經營策略皆有超過10年以上的經驗,經營者運用累積十幾年的技術、管理及行銷的有利資源,面對內外產業環境的變遷,以精簡的組織,透過產銷分工的營運模式,選定少量、多樣、高難度、高利潤客製化的產品,堅持執行既定的經營策略,同時引進ERP系統進行企業e化,委任專業代工,整合人力資源不足。透過客戶的專屬專賣,健全客戶財務體質,降低銷售風險。使上下游的價值鏈完美整合,強化了營業績效與銷售契機,讓A公司由原本的「成本導向」轉為「利潤導向」,十餘年來仍能維持合理的利潤,在台灣最艱困的環境之下,掌握競爭優勢存活下來。
    透過SWOT分析A公司的內部資源,外部產業環境,策略的運用,供應鏈的整合,人力資源的管理,競爭優勢的創造,期望可以將理論及實務結合,整理出關鍵成功因素如下:(1)定位明確:選定經營方針做小池塘的大魚 (2)技術領先:充份發揮研發、製造優勢 (3)制度化知識管理:善用制度彌補人力素質弱點(4)結合策略夥伴:運用有限資源管理整合外部資源(5)創新的差異化:整合多項創新優勢佈局成持續的優勢差異性。
    個案顯示台灣中小企業只要掌握適當的關鍵時機,權衡自身的有效資源,充分發揮中小企業特有的優點,靈活的組織彈性,超強的反應速度與勤奮敬業的員工,因應新競爭環境,求新與求變的韌性,重新調整腳步訂定經營策略,在台灣永續經營。
    ;Since the economic expansion in Taiwan from the 1960’s, small-and- middle-sized enterprises for OEM have been booming. In the 1990’s, new countries grow up, especially, since the mainland China government encourages foreign investment’ easily-obtained land, abundance of human resources, lower wages, and the huge potential in the consumer market of 1.3 billion persons, all cause middle-and-large enterprises to move westward. The advantages of small-and- middle-sized enterprises in Taiwan have been reduced gradually. Facing strong global competition and deteriorating industry environment in Taiwan, the enterprises will disappear if they fail to accelerate their reform. This paper takes company A as an example, to discuss how small-and-middle-sized enterprises in Taiwan, under the dramatically changing operational environment, find ways to continue their survival and reform using current resources; and their responding strategies.
    Company A is a customized medical equipment manufacturer with a small amount yet many varieties of product, transformed from one formerly operating a traditional large-scale consumer electronic production. It has over 10 years experience in each of two different operation strategies. The operator, relying on the resources accumulated for over 10 years in technology, management, and marketing, insists on the established operational strategy, with a streamlined organized operation with classification of production and marketing, selecting customized products in small amounts, but large varieties for high demand, and high profit reward. At the same time, the company brings in ERP to make it IT-based and entrusts professional OEM to  make up the human resource deficiency. It perfects the client’s financial system to reduce sales risks by creating client franchises. The upstream and downstream value chain has been integrated perfectly, and the operational performance and sale opportunities have been strengthened. Company A transfers from cost-oriented to profit-oriented. It can still retain rational profits as in the past decade and survives with its competitive edge in the most challenging environment in Taiwan.
    It is expected, through analyzing the internal resources of the Company with SWOT, by the review and application of external industry environmental strategies, by the integration of the supply chain, the management of human resources, and the creation of competitive edges to put theory into practice some key factors of its success may evolve. These would be as follows: (1) To clearly define a position and select its operating principle of being “a big fish in a small pond.” (2) To develop leading technology so as to fully play its advantages in R&D and manufacturing. (3) To use systemized knowledge management to compensate for weaknesses in human qualifications within the system. (4) To form strategic partnerships to manage and integrate the external resources using limited resources (5) To address the differences in creation by integrating many creation advantages into one sustained advantage.
    The case study indicates that small-and-middle-sized enterprises in Taiwan can sustain their operation only if they can grasp critical opportunities; evaluate their effective resources; play out their specific advantages, such as flexible organization, super response, and diligent employees; adapt to new competition environments; retain their toughness of seeking innovation and changes; and adjust their development pace to set up new operational strategies.
    显示于类别:[高階主管企管(EMBA)碩士班] 博碩士論文

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