本文研究對象為王塘南，以塘南文獻為主要研究材料，以呈現塘南文獻中所蘊含的思想為研究方式，目的為塘南思想提出一致且適當的理解，並建構其思想所內涵的理論架構；進而參照當代重要的詮釋理論，對塘南思想的特徵與意義提出良好的分析與評議。 通過實際考察，塘南思想以道德的本體宇宙論作為基礎，肯定一超越而內在的至善「性」體，作為天地萬物存在根據與創生本源，進而提出「盈天地一性」、「盈天地一氣」的說法。回應於當時陽明後學間的論辯，塘南不以「良知」來規範「心」，亦不以「致良知」來從事實踐，而主張「收斂歸根」、「悟性修命」、「研幾透性」，將實踐根據與場域設定在先後天之間的發竅處，強調於本體初萌時，密密去妄、收斂以恢復本體之明，於經驗性的生命實境中體悟超越性的真性。 很顯然地，塘南的良知學理解並不同於陽明，然當塘南以「念」取代陽明「有善有惡」之「意」，以「意」取代陽明「知善知惡」之「知」時，遂將陽明由「知是知非」道德分判活動中來肯認「良知」作用的義理型態，轉成由「悟」、「透」來呈顯「良知」默運的義理型態；並將陽明重視的「當下即是」的「當前性」，轉成「密密研求」、「山窮水盡」的「歷程性」。此是塘南在經過陽明後學間對於「見成良知」肯定、否認之論辯後，所提出的辯證性理解，依靠「意」、「知」所具有「兼屬先天後天」、「兼屬體用」的特殊性格，同時保留「良知」的「活動性」與「超越性」，展現良知學脈絡中一條著重於「密」的實踐路向，為之後的蕺山學提供思考方向。;This is a study on the moral philosophy of Wan tang-nan (王塘南, 1522-1605). As a disciple of Wang Yang-ming (王陽明, 1472-1529), Wan tang-nan is known for his creative interpretations of Wang Yang-ming’s theory of the concept of “pure consciousness” (良知). Some commentators doubt about Wan tang-nan had already disobeyed Wang Yang-ming’s doctrine, and others took Wan tang-nan’s works as a contribution to the development of the theory of pure consciousness in the later part of the Ming dynasty. This thesis attempts to show that Wan tang-nan interpreted Wang Yang-ming’s doctrine by his comprehension to solve the problems that other disciples of Wang Yang-ming had caused. There are three characteristics could be pointed out. The first, Wan tang-nan’s moral philosophy was set up through the onto-cosmological statements as a foundation of his theory. Secondary, Wan tang-nan tried to explicate the concept of pure consciousness in terms of the concept of “under the transcendence and beyond the empirical world” (先天之子，後天之母) and the “channel” (發竅). The final, Wan tang-nan argued that pure consciousness could not be yielded by moral decision or judgement. Pure consciousness could only present itself in human mind by truly realizeise or affection, and Wan tang-nan called such a kind of practical activity the “wu xing” (悟性) or “tou xing” (透性). It is not difficult to figure out, Wan tang-nan’s interpretation of the concept of pure consciousness is different from Wang Yang-ming’s. However, if not only the transcendental property of pure consciousness but also the possibility of instantaneous actualization of pure consciousness should be keep, Wan tang-nan’s unique theory provided a proper solution to the problem that Wang Yang-ming gave us indeed. Furthermore, a developing direction that focus on the “invisible” (密) was raised and a clue of the study of Liu ji-shan (劉蕺山, 1578-1645) was discovered in Wan tang-nan’s moral philosophy.