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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/64905


    Title: 朱熹及北山三子《大學》詮釋研究;Zhu Xi and Beishan sanzi interpretation of The Great Learning
    Authors: 許玉敏;Hsu,Yu-min
    Contributors: 中國文學系
    Keywords: 朱熹;北山三子;大學;明德;格物致知;誠意正心
    Date: 2014-07-25
    Issue Date: 2014-10-15 14:33:11 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本文的研究對象是朱熹及北山四先生中的王柏、金履祥與許謙對《大學》的詮釋。為了敘述方便,將王、金、許三人合稱北山三子。現在學界普遍以祖述朱說為北山三子的思想特色,本文的主要寫作目的是要檢討這個說法是否合宜。筆者認為現有的研究成果,大多只注意到朱王金許四人所使用的詞彙與文句十分雷同,而未能釐清這些詞彙與文句所蘊涵的意義是否相同。本文以這四人對《大學》的詮釋為例,說明他們在相似的文句底下,各自表達了不同的思想,不可一概而論。
    關於朱熹的心性論及其對《大學》的詮釋,筆者認為應從「心」的形氣結構入手,由存在構造來理解朱熹所謂的「心」。本文認為朱熹有「本心」的概念,他肯定人類都擁有純粹至善的本心,它雖會被遮蔽,但不會被昏濁。本心的「安」,就是人類從事道德行為的最大動力。但人類也有主管思慮的心之官,心之官的昏濁,則有可能遮蔽本心的發用。朱熹的《大學章句》裡,格物致知是推擴本心的工夫,誠意則是對治心之官的工夫,兩者層次不同,而應以推擴本心為根本工夫。
    北山三子對「心」的理解,沒有像朱熹那樣細緻的區分,而是將心區分為形而上之理與形而下之氣兩部分。北山三子的心性論有以下兩個特點:第一,肯定性具有發用的能力;第二,認為心是理氣之合,理、氣各有發用,故一心之中道心、人心不斷衝突。這兩點決定了他們的工夫論是知先行後的工夫型態,以格物致知為第一截工夫,以誠意正心為第二截工夫,二者又以誠意為重。經過本文的討論可知,北山三子的想法與朱熹並不相同。因此,以「祖述朱說」來評價北山三子的說法,是有待商榷的。
    ;Wang bo, Jin lüxiang and Xu Qian, who were called Beishan sanzi in this thesis, were three Confucian scholars in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties. It is said that Beishan sanzi’s theory followed the ideology of Zhu Xi’s theory.However, this statement will be re-examined by studying their annotation of The Great Learning in this thesis.There exists a obvious problem while comparing the theories between Zhu Xi and Beishan sanzi’s by some modern scholars. Usually the comparison was based on the similarity of usage of words without paying more attention on the implication of those words.We know that the homonym and synonym are widely used in Chinese ancient books. It is inappropriate to compare two different theories only based on linguistic matters. Therefore, this thesis proposes evidences that Zhu Xi and Beishan sanzi used similar words to express different thoughts.
    The meaning of Xin(心, heart) in Zhu Xi’s theory is discussed in Chapter 2 and 3, which is started by describing the structure of Xin. In Zhu Xi’ opinion, Xin is formed by Xing(形, form) and Qi(氣, vitality) . Through the analysis of Zhu Xi’s theory on Xin, we learn the Xin can be divided into three levels: Xinzang(心臟, physical heart), Xinzhiguan(心之官, the office of the mind), and Benxin(本心, Root Self). Zhu Xi believes that Benxin belongs to Immetaphysical field, and it is pure and perfect. The efforts of Self-cultivation of Gewu(格物, investigating things) and Zhizhi(致知, extending knowledge) can help us to manifest our Benxin completely. Moreover, Chengyi(誠意, Making the thoughts sincere) can help people to purify their Xinzhiguan.
    However, the comprehension of heart for Beishan sanzi differs from for Zhu Xi. Beishan sanzi believe that the Xin is composed of li(理,principle) and Qi. Thus, there are two contradictory forces existing in human′s Xin. One is called Daoxin(道心, moral mind), which is driven by li. The other is called Renxin(人心, human mind) which is driven by Qi. Because of the confliction of Daoxin and Renxin in one’s Xin, it is necessary to accomplish two steps of works for a scholar . First of all, he needs to distinguish Daoxin from Renxin by understanding what li is. The process of this work is called Gewu and Zhizhi. Second, he has to enforce his behavior to conform li. The process of this work is called Chengyi.
    Beishan sanzi had claimed that their theory followed the ideology of Zhu Xi’s theory. However, according to the analysis above, it is clear that the annotation of The Great Learning between Zhu Xi and Beishan sanzi are different.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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