;Wang bo, Jin lüxiang and Xu Qian, who were called Beishan sanzi in this thesis, were three Confucian scholars in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties. It is said that Beishan sanzi’s theory followed the ideology of Zhu Xi’s theory.However, this statement will be re-examined by studying their annotation of The Great Learning in this thesis.There exists a obvious problem while comparing the theories between Zhu Xi and Beishan sanzi’s by some modern scholars. Usually the comparison was based on the similarity of usage of words without paying more attention on the implication of those words.We know that the homonym and synonym are widely used in Chinese ancient books. It is inappropriate to compare two different theories only based on linguistic matters. Therefore, this thesis proposes evidences that Zhu Xi and Beishan sanzi used similar words to express different thoughts.
The meaning of Xin(心, heart) in Zhu Xi’s theory is discussed in Chapter 2 and 3, which is started by describing the structure of Xin. In Zhu Xi’ opinion, Xin is formed by Xing(形, form) and Qi(氣, vitality) . Through the analysis of Zhu Xi’s theory on Xin, we learn the Xin can be divided into three levels: Xinzang(心臟, physical heart), Xinzhiguan(心之官, the office of the mind), and Benxin(本心, Root Self). Zhu Xi believes that Benxin belongs to Immetaphysical field, and it is pure and perfect. The efforts of Self-cultivation of Gewu(格物, investigating things) and Zhizhi(致知, extending knowledge) can help us to manifest our Benxin completely. Moreover, Chengyi(誠意, Making the thoughts sincere) can help people to purify their Xinzhiguan.
However, the comprehension of heart for Beishan sanzi differs from for Zhu Xi. Beishan sanzi believe that the Xin is composed of li(理，principle) and Qi. Thus, there are two contradictory forces existing in human′s Xin. One is called Daoxin(道心, moral mind), which is driven by li. The other is called Renxin(人心, human mind) which is driven by Qi. Because of the confliction of Daoxin and Renxin in one’s Xin, it is necessary to accomplish two steps of works for a scholar . First of all, he needs to distinguish Daoxin from Renxin by understanding what li is. The process of this work is called Gewu and Zhizhi. Second, he has to enforce his behavior to conform li. The process of this work is called Chengyi.
Beishan sanzi had claimed that their theory followed the ideology of Zhu Xi’s theory. However, according to the analysis above, it is clear that the annotation of The Great Learning between Zhu Xi and Beishan sanzi are different.