|摘要: ||研擬在印尼亞齊省畢魯恩區的克倫布衫甘流域 (Krueng Peusangan watershed) 進行綜合性的流域保護系統以改善水資源品質，本論文探討應用經濟手段「環境服務收費 (Payment for Environmental Services，PES)」制度的可行性，及影響PES制度推行的因素，研究方法主要採用面對面式的訪問及調查流域附近之居民的意見收集與分析。|
本研究以改善河岸沖失及清除河床沉積物的工程方法來提升克倫布衫甘流域的水質，工程費用每年需 IDR 3,328,758,500；為回收該工程費用，當採用使用者付費之PES制度時，即每人每月收取2,086印尼盾，每月可收入總額是24,737,364印尼盾或 每年296,848,368印尼盾。如果只考慮回收工程開發的支出，本項工程投資的回收年為 11 年多。另一方面，採用成本效益法評估結果，進行比較 ”有” 和 ”無” 此改善工程，發現其益本比 (BCR) 為 1.05。從 BCR 的結果顯示本流域採用 PES制度仍然是一項值得的投資與做法。;This research sought to improve the quality of water by means of carrying out the integrated watershed protection system in Krueng Peusangan watershed of Bireuen district in Aceh of Indonesia. For studying the factors that will affect the taxation policy to the community with an economic instrument named Payment for Environmental Services (PES), an investigation of using a face-to-face interview was made to enquire residents of the community, which are living nearby Krueng Peusangan watershed, about their willingness-to-pay for the improvement of water quality in the watershed. This study also used the method of cost benefit ratio to evaluate existing program of PES.
Results showed that 99.4% of respondents agreed to the improvement program of Krueng Peusangan watershed, but only 57.2% of above assentors having WTP for the watershed improvement and the remains, i.e., 42.8% did not have. The results of binary logistic regression indicated that the degree of respondents’ agreement is not statistically significance and not positively related the factors, including the quality of water, the number of family members, purpose of water, degree of watershed degradation, level of education and salary. Interestingly, by using while multinomial logistic regression showed that WTP is significantly and positively related to level of education, number of family member, the degree of watershed degradation, and quality of water. The result of referendum choices showed the mean WTP is IDR (Indonesian Rupiah currency) 4,753 per gallon of used water.
This study estimated the engineering cost to improve water quality of Krueng Peusangan watershed by erosion control of river embankment and removal of sediments from river bed. The results of estimation was that the total engineering investment by a “flat tax” approach, the approximation that that can be charged for the water users is IDR 2, 086 per month/user and total revenue that can be earned a month is IDR 24,737,364, or IDR 296.848,363 per year. If only consider the recovery of capital expenditure, the investment return would take 11 years more. Furthermore, if comparing to cost and benefit with/without this improvement program, it found that the benefit-cost-ratio (BCR) was 1.05. From the BCR result, it indicated that the PES in Krueng Peusangan watershed is still a worthwile investment.