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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/65930


    Title: 北洋海軍現代化之檢討
    Authors: 周晏霆;Chou,Yan-ting
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 北洋海軍;海軍衙門;北洋海軍章程;琅威理;甲午戰爭
    Date: 2014-07-21
    Issue Date: 2014-10-15 17:18:24 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 清代晚期於列強交相入侵之際,海防漸受重視。在光緒九年(1883)~光緒十一年(1885)年的中法戰爭刺激下,清朝政府為有效整合海防相關事務,因此於戰爭結束後立即成立了中國歷史上第一個海軍部門──「海軍衙門」。其最大的意義在於將原本由地方各自推動的海防事務收歸至中央統一指揮。
      光緒十四年(1888)《北洋海軍章程》的制定被視為北洋海軍正式成軍的指標。該章程的制定代表著中國近代海軍發展,不是只停留在學習西方船堅炮利的器物層面,而是已進入到制度層面的變革。在一方面參考西方海軍制度的同時,《北洋海軍章程》亦保留了部分原有中國傳統舊式水師的相關制度,此為新舊交替正值時代轉變的重要特色。
      正式成軍後的北洋海軍隨即面臨了經費與訓練的問題。在「海軍衙門」的控制下,經費無法持續且有效的增加。其原因在於「海軍衙門」不僅無法爭取到更充裕的經費,為應付其他支出反而成為北洋海軍經費遭到抑制的重要原因。光緒十六年(1890)原本擔任北洋海軍總查(The Chief Inspector of the Northern Naval Squadron)一職的英籍洋員琅威理(William M. Lang, 1843~1906)因「升旗事件」最後去職,使得北洋海軍官兵無法在訓練上維持一定的水準,甚至在軍紀的維持上每況愈下,其整體作戰力走向下坡。
      十九世紀新式海權思想重視者乃為制海權的掌控。但因北洋海軍經費不足無法添購新艦,亦無法換裝新式火炮,使得實際主導者的李鴻章又退回到以防禦為主的戰略上。在光緒二十年(1894)的黃海海戰與光緒二十一年(1895)的威海衛海戰中,此種防禦性戰略最後使得北洋海軍最後遭到覆滅的命運。
    ;At the time of the successive invasions by foreign powers, coast defense was progressively emphasized by the late Qing Dynasty. Due to the frustrating result of Sino-French War, lasting from the 9th year to the 11th year of the Guangxu reign (1883-1885), the Qing government promptly, after the war, set up the first Department of Navy in Chinese history-Naval Department, literally meaning “Office in charge of Affairs of Navy”-so as to effectively integrate those affairs related to coast defense. Rather than being carried out separately by the local authorities, the coast defense affairs were henceforth under concerted command of the central government.
    Articles of Association of the Northern Navy, laid down in the 14th year of the Guangxu reign (1888), has been considered a landmark when the Northern Navy was formally established. The enactment signifies that the naval development in Early Modern China was no longer limited to adopting the western weaponry, but progressed to the systematic reformation. While referring to the western naval system, the Articles of Association of the Northern Navy also preserved a partial system of the traditional Chinese navy, which served as a distinctive characteristic of transition from the old to the new.
    After formally established, the Northern Navy immediately encountered difficulties in funds and training. Under control of Naval Department, there was no continual and effective increase in funds. Not only did Naval Department fail to strive for more budgets, but it also had to deal with other expenses, which became the fundamental reason of the restraint on funds for the Northern Navy. In the 16th year of the Guangxu reign, William M. Lang, a British consultant and the original Chief Inspector of the Northern Naval Squadron, resigned because of the Flag-raising Event. The incident kept the Northern Naval officers and men from maintaining a certain standard in training, and even caused their military discipline and the general combat ability to go downhill.
    In the 19th century, Sea Chauvinism laid much stress on thalassocracy. However, the Northern Navy were short of funds to purchase new naval vessels, and neither could they replace the old gunfire. Accordingly, the man in charge, Hong Zhang Li, returned to the defense-based strategy. In Battle of Yalu River in the 20th year of the Guangxu reign (1894) and Battle of Weihaiwei in the 21st (1895), the very defensive strategy eventually doomed the Northern Navy.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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