;Ma Shiying（馬士英） was famous because of he was the leader of Grand Secretariat（大學士） during Hongguang（弘光） Emperor in Southern Ming Dynasty. However, he was written as a “Chien Chen”（奸臣） in Mingshih（明史）, which was edited by literati of Qing Dynasty, who caused the elimination of Ming Dynasty. But the death of a country shouldn’t be putting on a person. Even though there are some other reasons to blame on Shiying, but put him into “Chien Chen Chuan” might be too subjective. So my thesis is base on the analyzing and organizing of historical materials, and try to give Shiying a fair judgement.
MA’s family was the commander of Guizhon（貴州） military camp for several generations, and this let him became famous because of his military talent. Shiying started his government career since 47th year of Wanli（萬曆）, by the title of Jinshi Chushen（進士出身）. And later, he also severed Tianqi（天啟） and Chongzhen（崇禎） these two Emperor. The 5th year of Chongzhen, Shiying was promoted to grand coordinator of Hsuanfu（宣府巡撫）. Yet, the bribe was bad habbit in bureaucracy during late Ming, and Shiying was dimissed because of been peached. Affter that, Shiying stayed in Nanjing（南京） and builded up his own social contacts. Above all, since Ruan Dacheng（阮大鋮） recommended and helped Shiying to become the provincial governor of Fengyang（鳳陽總督）, associated with him was the turning point to Shiying. When Shiying got the position of Grand Secretariat, he supported Dacheng to come back to government again. The intercourse between Shiying and Dacheng is one of the keypoints that will be discussed in this thesis.
When Ma Shiying was provincial governor of Fengyang, he controled portion of military of Jiangnan（江南）. At the same time , the whole situation was in a mass; Li Zicheng（李自成） got into Beijing（北京）, Chongzhen Emperor hang himself, and most of princes went south. Shiying supported price Fu, Zhu Yousong（福王朱由崧） to enthrome at Nanjing by two advantages; military strength and regular succession. And this contribution also got him Grand Secretariat. After that, Shiying became the leader of Grand Secretariat when Shi Kefa（史可法） changed to Yangzhou（揚州） and leading military at there. Shiying received a lot of criticism because of the event of supporting Ruan Dacheng back to government, which caused the members of Tunglin（東林） leaving. Even if Shiying guided and supported some others, but still, he couldn’t get support from most of Tunglin in the government. He was considered as a representative of selling official posts, although Shiying also gave out great recommend about promoting policies. So this part will also been discuessed in this paper.
During Ming-Qing transition, Shiying could served as Grand Secretariat was because he owned the ability. Even though he and Shi Kefa post the policy of nigotiation with Qing Dynasty, but they couldn’t deal with the attack by Qing and Zuo Liangyu（左良玉） completely, which could be one of the resons cause the extinction of Hongguang Emperor. After Hongguang Emperor been defeated, Shiying floundered to several places to against Qing. Take this movement as an example, Shiying shouldn’t be listed in “Chien Chen Chuan”. The main theme of this thesis is trying to show the positive image of Ma Shiying, rather than the appearance of “Chien Chen”.