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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/65931


    Title: 弘光首輔馬士英與南明政局之研究;The Research of the Relationship between Grand Secretariat Ma Shiying and the Political of Southern Ming Dynasty in Hongguang Emperor
    Authors: 温景瀚;Wen,Chin-han
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 馬士英;弘光朝;阮大鋮;東林士人;抗清;Ma Shiying;Hongguang Emperor;Ruan Dacheng;Tunglin;Against Qing
    Date: 2014-07-24
    Issue Date: 2014-10-15 17:18:27 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 馬士英(1595-1646)以擔任南明弘光朝(1644-1645)首輔大學士而廣為人知,然而經由清代官修《明史》的主導之下,士英成為讓大明滅亡的「奸臣」,這是因為官修《明史》所存在的價值觀,有部分是來自東林的史家。但一個國家的衰亡,不會只體現在一個人的身上,將亡國之因怪罪於士英身上或許情有可原,可是東林史家將他列入〈奸臣傳〉似乎又太過武斷。所以本文在史料上做出歸納與分析後,評議東林史家的偏頗之處,以期給予士英公允之評價。
      馬士英的家族,世代為貴州衛指揮使,如此的家世讓士英在軍事造詣上,有著知兵的美名。士英於萬曆四十七年(1619),以第二甲賜進士出身,開始政治仕途,隨後歷宦天啟、崇禎二朝(1620-1644)。崇禎五年,士英升任宣府巡撫,然明末官場的賄賂陋習,讓士英被舉發而被削職。後來士英流寓南京,建立自己的人際網路,其中結交阮大鋮(1587-1646)是士英的轉捩點,因為大鋮是士英擔任鳳陽總督的推手。在士英擔任內閣大學士後,推薦大鋮復官,此二人的交往,是本文探討的重點之一。
      馬士英於明末任鳳陽總督,掌握江南的部分軍隊,時值李自成(1606-1645)入北京、明思宗(1611-1644)自縊、諸王南奔等混亂局勢,士英以軍力與倫序兩項優勢,擁立福王朱由崧(1607-1646)於南京即位。士英透過「定策」之功,得以先入內閣,後又因史可法(1601-1645)督師揚州,士英成為首輔大學士。成為首輔的士英在推舉阮大鋮復官一事中,讓東林士人陸續離職,士英也為此背負罵名。士英本身也提攜東林後進,然在朝政中依舊無法獲得多數東林士人的支持。對於朝政的推行,雖然士英被認為是賣官鬻爵的代表,但他也有提出良好的建議,所以本文亦會針對這部分進行論述。
      馬士英在明清鼎革之際,出任首輔大學士,有他本身的能力,雖然與史可法一同提出北使清廷的政策,但在面對清軍南下與左良玉(1599-1645)起兵等事件的處理上,又顯得不夠完善,造成弘光朝廷快速滅亡的原因之一。清軍南下,弘光朝廷滅亡後,士英輾轉至南明各地抗清。以抗清的舉動來看,士英就不該列入〈奸臣傳〉當中。本文就是以士英的正面形象,作為論述主體,用以呈現不同於「奸臣」的馬士英。
    ;Ma Shiying(馬士英) was famous because of he was the leader of Grand Secretariat(大學士) during Hongguang(弘光) Emperor in Southern Ming Dynasty. However, he was written as a “Chien Chen”(奸臣) in Mingshih(明史), which was edited by literati of Qing Dynasty, who caused the elimination of Ming Dynasty. But the death of a country shouldn’t be putting on a person. Even though there are some other reasons to blame on Shiying, but put him into “Chien Chen Chuan” might be too subjective. So my thesis is base on the analyzing and organizing of historical materials, and try to give Shiying a fair judgement.
      MA’s family was the commander of Guizhon(貴州) military camp for several generations, and this let him became famous because of his military talent. Shiying started his government career since 47th year of Wanli(萬曆), by the title of Jinshi Chushen(進士出身). And later, he also severed Tianqi(天啟) and Chongzhen(崇禎) these two Emperor. The 5th year of Chongzhen, Shiying was promoted to grand coordinator of Hsuanfu(宣府巡撫). Yet, the bribe was bad habbit in bureaucracy during late Ming, and Shiying was dimissed because of been peached. Affter that, Shiying stayed in Nanjing(南京) and builded up his own social contacts. Above all, since Ruan Dacheng(阮大鋮) recommended and helped Shiying to become the provincial governor of Fengyang(鳳陽總督), associated with him was the turning point to Shiying. When Shiying got the position of Grand Secretariat, he supported Dacheng to come back to government again. The intercourse between Shiying and Dacheng is one of the keypoints that will be discussed in this thesis.
      When Ma Shiying was provincial governor of Fengyang, he controled portion of military of Jiangnan(江南). At the same time , the whole situation was in a mass; Li Zicheng(李自成) got into Beijing(北京), Chongzhen Emperor hang himself, and most of princes went south. Shiying supported price Fu, Zhu Yousong(福王朱由崧) to enthrome at Nanjing by two advantages; military strength and regular succession. And this contribution also got him Grand Secretariat. After that, Shiying became the leader of Grand Secretariat when Shi Kefa(史可法) changed to Yangzhou(揚州) and leading military at there. Shiying received a lot of criticism because of the event of supporting Ruan Dacheng back to government, which caused the members of Tunglin(東林) leaving. Even if Shiying guided and supported some others, but still, he couldn’t get support from most of Tunglin in the government. He was considered as a representative of selling official posts, although Shiying also gave out great recommend about promoting policies. So this part will also been discuessed in this paper.
      During Ming-Qing transition, Shiying could served as Grand Secretariat was because he owned the ability. Even though he and Shi Kefa post the policy of nigotiation with Qing Dynasty, but they couldn’t deal with the attack by Qing and Zuo Liangyu(左良玉) completely, which could be one of the resons cause the extinction of Hongguang Emperor. After Hongguang Emperor been defeated, Shiying floundered to several places to against Qing. Take this movement as an example, Shiying shouldn’t be listed in “Chien Chen Chuan”. The main theme of this thesis is trying to show the positive image of Ma Shiying, rather than the appearance of “Chien Chen”.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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