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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/65933


    Title: 戰後臺灣海域海洋污染及政府因應措施之研究(1950-2001)──以輪船海難為例;The Study of Maritime Casualties and the Workaround of R.O.C. Government around Taiwan after Chinese Civil War (1950-2001)-Take Maritime Disaster of Vessel as Example
    Authors: 李家豪;Li-Chia-Hao
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 海難;海洋環境污染;海洋污染防治法;Maritime Casualties;Pollution Of The Marine Environment;Pollution Of The Marine Environment
    Date: 2014-07-24
    Issue Date: 2014-10-15 17:18:29 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本研究課題為「戰後臺灣海域海洋污染及政府因應措施之研究(1950-2001)──以輪船海難為例」。臺灣地區為海島型地理環境,海洋活動為歷史發展之要素。但海上活動風險頗高,海難時有所聞。又,傳統船舶動力因新式能源石油的使用而隨之沒落,海難不再只對船員生命造成威脅,其裝載的油料更是讓海洋環境受到污染。
    鑑於史學界對戰後臺灣地區周圍海域,因輪船海難引起海洋污染的討論不多,為釐清與比較政府面對相關案例作為。透過政府公報、調查報告、報紙梳理海洋污染之規範,列舉光隆號(Kuang Lung)、布拉格號(Borag)、東方佳人號(Oriental Lady)、水瓶之光號(Aquarius Bright)、阿瑪斯號(Amorgos)五個個案,探討海洋污染防治法通過前後,政府對海難引起海洋污染案例應對措施之異同。
    首先整理1950到2001年,國際與中華民國關於海洋污染規範的變化,並分析與現行海洋污染防治法之相關性,中華民國在國際公約締約情況不盡理想,但仍援引公約的重要概念制定法律。其次在海洋污染規範尚不健全的時期,列舉個案了解救援運作情形。所舉個案各有人員傷亡、污染程度嚴重、位於觀光區及離島地區等重要性,討論除污作為與救難資源分配狀況,除污單位整合程度不盡理想﹔臺灣地區具備除污基礎但仍不足以應付,需要國際的幫助。整體狀況來看,雖配合國際趨勢前進,但是為一種被動式的前進,以致遇到實際狀況容易有措手不及之感覺,權責不清亦造成相關機構疊床架屋。最後是海洋污染防治法制定變化,梳理法條草案版本的改變與異同,使用政府公報建構其立法過程。再以阿瑪斯號作為海洋污染防治法通過後應用案例,與前述海洋污染案例比較,了解政府處理應對的模式。
    臺灣地區在面對海洋污染事件,有幾項特色,其一為行政單位處於多頭馬車的情勢。其二是國內法規的適用性。其三是海域生態環境資料建置不完善。其四是媒體的存在需求。
    ;This Subject is “The Study of Maritime Casualties and the Workaround from R.O.C. Government around Taiwan after Chinese Civil War (1950-2001)-Take Maritime Disaster of Vessel as Example”. Since the circumstance of Taiwan is an island, the activities on the sea is an important factor in progress. Those activities includes high hazard, so maritime casualty is something common. Also, boats that used wind power declined because of the new source-oil. Maritime casualties not only threat the life of crewman, but also caused pollution of the marine environment because of the loaded oil.
    According to the discussion about the pollution of marine around Taiwan caused by maritime casualties isn’t that much in the community of the history studies in Taiwan. So this thesis is trying to clarify and compare what’s the movement of the government when they facing similar event. Via government gazette, investigation report and newspaper, carding the laws about marine pollution. This thesis list five cases, Kuang Lung, Borag, Oriental Lady, Aquarius Bright and Amorgos, explore the differences of how government react to different cases of marine pollution caused by maritime casualty, before the Marine Pollution Control Act been adopted, and after.
    First of all, this paper organize the difference of the laws of marine pollution from both international and R.O.C. After that, analyzed the correlation between Marine Pollution Control Act and both the laws of international and R.O.C. Although R.O.C. won’t be able to contract with international covenant, they still quoted the conception of international covenant to establish the law of marine pollution. Secondly, during the period when the rule of marine pollution still unsound, this paper will use several cases to find out how rescue work at this time. The discussion of all the cases will include injury, the level of the pollution, and the spot of the event, tourist area or outlying island. This paper will also talk about the status about the elimination and the distribution of rescue resource. However, the administrative units of elimination didn’t integrate well. And this means, even R.O.C. have basic knowledge of elimination, but still, can’t handle everything well, and need help from other countries. Overall, Taiwan was moving forward in concert with international trend in a passive way. In this situation, the government will be unprepared when marine casualties really happening. The unclear rights and responsibilities of administrative units caused a lot of needless duplication. The last part is the process of Marine Pollution Control Act. Carding the difference and changing of the very first version of the act. And government gazette had been used for recording the constructing process of the act. After Marine Pollution Control Act been passed, this paper use Amorgos as example to compare with before, and try to understand more about how government react to the accident.
    There are several characteristics when R.O.C. is facing marine pollution event. First, it’s hard for administrative units to work together. The second one is how Marine Pollution Control Act apply on foreigner. Third, the data of marine environment around Taiwan didn’t set up well. The last one is the function of mass media, although sometime the main point might be blurred by them.
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