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    Title: 熱昇華廢棄相紙資源化研究;A Study on the Recycling of Waste Dye-Sublimation Photographic Papers Abstract
    Authors: 黃和順;Huang,He-Shun
    Contributors: 環境工程研究所在職專班
    Keywords: 熱昇華;列印;相紙;再利用;thermal transfer;printing;thermal transferable paper;recycling
    Date: 2014-07-24
    Issue Date: 2014-10-15 17:21:50 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 自從數位相機問世與攝影手機普及後,傳統軟片沖洗成照片的數量急遽下滑,但數位相機及照相手機拍攝所衍生的數位影像列印數量卻逐年上升,而照片數位列印技術中又由於熱昇華列印技術具有高解析度、高速列印、防水(有保護層設計)、色調連續、色彩自然真實…等優勢,是未來市場上最適合用於影像輸出的一種列印技術。
    熱昇華式印表機的運作原理是將色帶透過印表機加熱頭上的微型加熱片,於色帶的背面加熱後,將正面染料層上的染料,轉印到相紙上,形成高畫質的相片。
    熱昇華相紙於生產過程中可能因為切邊料、開機前後期、測試期間、機械設備異常而產出廢料。而熱昇華相紙屬於複合性材質,於紙張正反面貼合、淋膜了OPP與PE等塑膠材質,國內資源回收商因其材質為複合性材料,而難以回收再利用,故皆無回收意願,只能以當作無法回收之一般事業廢棄物,送到焚化爐進行焚化,不只造成企業大量成本支出,該廢棄物焚化更耗用能源並可能造成環境汙染。本研究即希望經過實驗與驗證步驟尋找熱昇華廢棄相紙資源化之方式,突破熱昇華相紙廢棄物回收瓶頸,以尋求回收再利用之價值。
    本研究參考利樂包水力散漿方式進行實驗,分為三個階段進行測試。第一階段是以果汁機取代散漿機作初步實驗,散漿結果可以發現霧面OPP、白色亮面WBOPP與PE等塑料於漿中呈現上浮狀態並且與紙漿纖維分離,利於收集,進而進行後續再利用程序。
    第二階段實驗是以標準散漿機進行散漿實驗,在本階段的實驗中,可以確認白色亮面的WBOPP與霧面的OPP能夠全數完整的被收集再利用。97%的PE塑料則被收集於MESH 16 的篩網中,可以進行後續的再生使用程序。而小於16 MESH的良漿進行手抄紙實驗後,確認紙張抗張強度符合CNS文化用紙的相關條件,能夠回收再利用作成再生紙。
    第三階段實驗是以不添加酸、鹼而調整pH值、不添加酵素或其他化學藥品的情況下,以相紙裁切之尺寸大小、紙漿的浸潤時間、紙漿的散漿時間、紙漿的浸潤溫度作為控制變因,以散漿機進行水力散漿實驗,確認在不添加任何藥劑的情況下散漿結果、紙漿與塑料分離的情況與回收的效率的影響。
    第三階段第1組實驗是以相紙尺寸大小為控制變因。研究發現由於OPP、WBOPP與PE幾乎都能全數被分離且收集,所以相紙尺寸大小對塑料回收效率而言並無明顯變化,但對良漿回收率而言卻有明顯的變化。故可確認相紙裁切尺寸越小,散漿效果越好,反之,相紙裁切尺寸越大,散漿效果越差。
    第三階段第2組實驗是以相紙紙漿之浸潤時間為控制變因。研究發現由於OPP、WBOPP與PE幾乎都能全數被分離且收集,所以相紙紙漿之浸潤時間對塑料回收效率而言並無明顯變化,但對良漿回收率而言卻有明顯的變化。故可確認相紙浸潤時間越長,散漿效果越好,反之,相紙浸潤時間越短,散漿效果越差。
    第三階段第3組實驗是以相紙紙漿之散漿時間為控制變因,研究發現由於OPP、WBOPP與PE幾乎都能全數被分離且收集,所以相紙紙漿之散漿時間對塑料回收效率而言並無明顯變化,但對良漿回收率而言卻有明顯的變化。故可確認相紙散漿時間越長,散漿效果越好,反之,相紙散漿時間越短,散漿效果越差。
    第三階段第4組實驗是以相紙紙漿之浸潤溫度為控制變因,研究發現由於OPP、WBOPP與PE幾乎都能全數被分離且收集,所以相紙紙漿之浸潤溫度對塑料回收效率而言並無明顯變化,但對良漿回收率而言卻有明顯的變化。故可確認相紙浸潤溫度越高,散漿效果越好,反之,相紙浸潤溫度越低,散漿效果越差。
    由文獻回顧當中可以了解利樂包的紙漿纖維之回收得率約為30%至37%,但熱昇華相紙以相同之水力散漿技術進行實驗測試,無論操作變因為相紙材切尺寸大小、相紙進潤溫度、相紙紙漿散漿時間或是相紙浸潤時間方面,紙漿纖維之回收得率卻有39.13%至39.85%,比利樂包之紙漿纖維回收率來的高。
    總結上述,相紙經過實驗證實可以將成份分離,分別分離出霧面OPP、白色亮面WBOPP、PE塑料與紙漿,並經由手抄紙實驗證實,相紙之紙漿能夠製作成手抄紙再利用。而塑料分離與紙漿得率會隨著控制變因的不同而有所改變,減少相紙尺寸大小、增加相紙浸潤時間、增加相紙散漿時間與增加相紙浸潤溫度,都有助於塑料分離效果與紙漿得率。
    綜合實驗結果,證明熱昇華相紙能夠進行回收再利用,而相關的操作參數可提供環保業者與紙類再生回收業者參考。
    ;Since the coming out of digital camera and the popularizing of cell phone camera, the number of photos developed by traditional film has dropped rapidly, but the quantity of digital image printing derived by digital camera and cell phone camera has been climbing up over years. Among the technologies of digital image printing, thermal transfer printing technology has the advantages of high resolution, high printing speed, waterproof (with the design of protective layer), hue continuity, natural and real color, etc., and thus is the most promising printing technology in the future market for image output.
    Operation mechanism of thermal transfer printer: use micro heating piece on the heating head of the printer to heat the back side of dye ribbon, so that the dyestuff on the dye layer of the front side can be transferred onto thermal transferable paper to make high quality photo.
    When manufacturing thermal transferable paper, cutting edges, waste paper during testing, machine startup, and equipment disorder can become source of waste material. Because thermal transferable paper belongs to composite material, coated with plastic material like OPP and PE, so it is hard to be recycled and reused. Therefore, domestic recycling organizations are not willing to collect the remnants of thermal transferable paper. Consequently, the remnants of thermal transferable paper, treated as ordinary unrecyclable waste, can only be sent to incinerator. This leads to a waste of manufacturer′s money and costs, and what′s more, the process of incineration consumes energy and brings environmental pollution. In this research, we hope to find out a way to recycle the remnants of thermal transferable paper through experiment and verification procedures, so as to break through the bottleneck of recycling thermal transferable paper remnants and make full use of the value of the remnants.
    This study takes hydrapulper of Tetra Pak as a reference to conduct tests in three phases. The first phase used a blender instead of a pulper to conduct a preliminary experiment. The pulping results show that the matte OPP, white glossy WBOPP and PE plastics are in a floating state in the pulp and that they are separated from the paper pulp fiber and then collected to be used for the subsequent recycling process.
    The second phase used a standard pulper to conduct the pulping experiment. In this experiment, it is confirmed that the white glossy WBOPP and matte OPP can be collected in full to be put in re-use. 97% of PE plastic is collected in the mesh screen of MESH 16 which can be put in the subsequent recycling process. The benign paper pulps smaller than MESH 16 is to go through a hand sheet experiment to ensure its tensile strength meeting the conditions of CNS paper, and that it can be used for making recycled paper.
    The third phase, under the conditions of no pH value adjustment by acid and alkali and no enzymes or chemicals added, uses the control variables in the cutting sizes of photographic papers, the soaking time of pulp, the pulping time of paper pulp and soaking temperature of paper pulp to conduct hydrapulping experiment with a pulper. This is to confirm the impacts of pulping results and the separation between paper pulp and plastics on the efficiency of recycling without adding any agents.
    In the third phase, the experiment of the first group takes the size of photographic paper as the control variable. The study finds that, as OPP, WBOPP and PE can almost all be separated and collected, the size of the photographic paper shows no significance on the recycling efficiency of plastics but has significance on the recycling rate of good pulp. It can be confirmed that the smaller the size of photographic paper, the better effect of pulping. On the contrary, the larger the size of photographic paper, the worse the effect of pulping is.
    In the third phase, the experiment of the second group takes the soaking time of photographic paper as the control variable. The study finds that, as OPP, WBOPP and PE can almost all be separated and collected, the wetting time of the photographic paper shows no significance on the recycling efficiency of plastics but has significance on the recycling rate of good pulp. It can be confirmed that the longer wetting time of paper, the better effect of pulping. On the contrary, the shorter the wetting time of photographic paper, the worse the effect of pulping is.
    In the third phase, the experiment of the third group takes the pulping time of photographic paper as the control variable. The study finds that, as OPP, WBOPP and PE can almost all be separated and collected, the pulping time of the photographic paper shows no significance on the recycling efficiency of plastics but has significance on the recycling rate of good pulp. It can be confirmed that the longer pulping time of paper, the better effect of pulping. On the contrary, the shorter the pulping time of photographic paper, the worse the effect of pulping is.
    In the third phase, the experiment of the third group takes the soaking temperature of photographic paper as the control variable. The study finds that, as OPP, WBOPP and PE can almost all be separated and collected, the soaking temperature of the photographic paper shows no significance on the recycling efficiency of plastics but has significance on the recycling rate of good pulp. It can be confirmed that the higher soaking temperature of paper, the better effect of pulping. On the contrary, the lower the soaking temperature of photographic paper, the worse the effect of pulping is.
    From the literature review we can learn that the recycling rate of Tetra Pak paper pulp fiber is approximately 30% to 37%. However for dye-sublimation photographic papers under the same type of hydrapulping technology, no matter what the control variables are in terms of the sizes, soaking time, pulping time and soaking time of the photographic paper, the recycling rate of paper pulp fiber can reach as high as 39.13% to 39.85%, apparently higher than the recycling rate of Tetra Pak paper fiber.
    Summarizing the above, it is experimentally proven that the ingredients of photographic paper can be separated into matte OPP, white glossy WBOPP, PE plastics and paper pulp. The handsheet experiment demonstrates that the paper pulp from photographic paper can be re-manufactured into handsheet. Separation of plastics and the collection rate of paper pulp can be changed under different control variables. Reducing the size, increasing the soaking and hydrapulping time and increasing the soaking temperature all can be beneficial to the results of plastics separation and the recycling rate of paper pulp.
    By summarizing experiment results, we prove that thermal transferable paper is recyclable and reusable. The relevant operation parameters can serve as a reference for environment protection industry and paper recycling industry.
    Appears in Collections:[Executive Master of Environmental Engineering] Electronic Thesis & Dissertation

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