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    题名: 清代宮廷畫家徐揚(1712-1779尚存)筆下之乾隆武功;Xu Yang′s (1712-1779 alive) Paintings Depicting Emperor Qianlong′s Conquers of Xinjiang and Jinchuan Tribes
    作者: 莊心俞;Chuang,Hsin-yu
    贡献者: 藝術學研究所
    关键词: 徐揚;乾隆;新清史;帝國敘事;戰圖;十全武功;Xu Yang;Qianlong;New Qing History;Imperial Narrative;War Illustrations;Ten Complete Military Victories
    日期: 2014-08-27
    上传时间: 2014-10-15 17:22:52 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 本論文受到「新清史」的研究核心概念所影響:以去漢族中心,並視滿州人為歷史主體的視角,再次檢視清代宮廷繪畫。反思「新清史」強調的滿清特殊性對宮廷畫院的影響,檢視滿清軍事政治力量對清代宮廷繪畫場域的滲透。本文以宮廷畫家徐揚(1712-1779)為研究個案,並以其創作的數件乾隆十全武功相關畫作為論述核心,審視滿清帝國敘事,如滿清建構的軍事活動及乾隆的個人品味,如何與徐揚的文化生產交互影響。藉由新清史的論述視角,將徐揚再現出的乾隆武功相關繪畫作品視為滿清的獨特院畫風貌,闡述其再現過程中體現的帝國建構現象。

    西域與兩金川的平定列於乾隆十全武功之首,亦為滿清擴張帝國邊界的兩場重要戰役,征伐西域期間以至戰後,乾隆陸續親自統籌辦理一系列軍事活動,諸如舉行戰後軍禮、測繪疆域、主持各類戰役相關文本的編纂。乾隆平定兩金川戰役期間及戰後,他亦統籌各種軍事文化活動。可以說滿清的「軍事」與「文化」場域,在乾隆的治理下,並非涇渭分明。鑑此,各章進一步闡明帝國敘事與宮廷繪畫生產間的關係。

    徐揚,蘇州人,乾隆十六年入宮任職。徐揚並非職業畫家出身,入宮後卻能勝任乾隆交辦的各式畫科任務,多次獲賜官名,乾隆對徐揚的青睞無庸置疑。本文第一章,以徐揚的宮廷活動為基礎,審視滿人帝王與漢人臣子間的互動關係,並提出解釋。第二章及第三章分別探討與平定西域相關的《平定伊犁回部獻俘禮圖》、《西域輿圖》及描繪兩金川戰役的《平定兩金川戰圖》。第二章,探討《平定西域獻俘禮圖》如何同時融合乾隆朝《職貢圖》製作系統及滿清軍禮圖像,將虛構的乾隆帝國一統想像幻化成真實的軍禮場景;並進一步提出《西域輿圖》這項文化生產,如何成為乾隆新疆地區的帝國測繪計劃下的一環。兩者皆是中央軍事活動的一項子計畫。第三章,闡述《平定兩金川戰圖》為乾隆御製詩及來自於中央軍機處的作戰態勢圖交織而成的產物。徐揚的這些宮廷繪畫作品不應被視為自主性的文化生產,亦非與滿清軍事行動分別進行的兩條平行線,而是中央統籌規劃的軍事文化下的子產出。藉由對宮廷官方文本與徐揚繪畫的比對與解讀,本文推論清代宮廷畫院並非是一個獨立的文化系統,而是一參雜政治力量的文化場域。
    ;The thesis employs the core concepts of the “New Qing History”—the perspectives of a de-centering Han-ethnic, and that of treating the Manchu people as the main subjects of history—to reappraise Palace Paintings in the Qing dynasty. The thesis reflects upon how the Manchurian specificity, which is highlighted by the “New Qing History”, exerted its influence on Court Painting, and examines how the military and political forces of the Qing reign permeated the field of Court Painting. The case study of Xu Yang (1712-1779) and some pieces of his paintings related to the Qianlong Emperor’s Ten CompleteMilitary Victories (十全武功) are the main concerns of the discourses of the research, which help to investigate how the Qing imperial narrative, such as the military activities conducted by the Qing and the individual taste of Qianlong, interacted with the cultural production of Xu Yang. Concerning the perspectives of the “New Qing History”, the thesis considers the representation of related paintings of Military Victories by Xu Yang as a distinctive quality of the Qing Palace Paintings, which embodied the marks during the process of its empire-building.

    The conquest of Xinjiang and two Jinchuan region (兩金川) were listed the first and the second of Ten CompleteMilitary Victories of Qianlong, which were the two important wars of expanding the boundary of the Qing empire. During and after these wars, Qianlong himself oversaw a series of military and cultural activities. Under Qianlong’s reign, it can be understood that the military field and the cultural field were not without boundary-crossing. Following this idea, the subsequent chapters further demonstrate the relationship between the imperial narrative and the production of Court Painting.

    Born in Suzhou, Xu Yang was an intellectual before serving the court in 1751. Ever since he served the court, he was promoted many times with scholarly honor and official rank by Qianlong. Qianlong’s favor to Xu was no doubt—given the fact that he was not a professional painter in the beginning, while after he started to serve the court, he was qualified to complete various kinds of paintings commissioned by Qianlong, and as a result, to gain official rank on occasion. In Chapter One, the interrelationship between the Manchurian emperor and the Han subject is discussed and explained based on Xu’s court activities. Chapters Two and Three respectively discuss paintings related the conquest of Xinjiang,Pacifying Xiyu and Offering Captive Ritual (平定西域獻俘禮圖),Xiyu Map (Picturing the Geogrophy of Xiyu, 西域輿圖), andBattle Scenes of Quelling the Rebellion in two Jinchuan Regions (平定兩金川戰圖) depicting the Second Jinchuan War. In Chapter Two, I explore howPacifying Xiyu and Offering Captive Ritualincorporated the production system of Official Tribute (職貢圖) and the military portraits of the Qing, which transferred the unifying imagination of the Qianlong empire into a real military ceremony. I also observe how the cultural production ofXiyu Mapbecame a part of the project of imperial mapping in the area of Xinjiang under the reign of Qianlong. Both were the sub-projects of central military scheme. In Chapter Three, I demonstrate Battle Scenes of Quelling the Rebellion in two Jinchuan Regionswas in fact a product interwoven by the Royal Poems of Qianlong and the Combat Situation Illustrations (作戰態勢圖) from the central Military Affairs. These court paintings by Xu should not be seen as an autonomous cultural production, nor a production independent of Qing military projects. Rather, it should be seen as a sub-production under the centralized military culture. Through the interpretation and comparison of the official court records and Xu Yang’s paintings, the thesis argues that the Qing Court Painting was a cultural field filled with political force, rather than an autonomous cultural system.
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