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|Title: ||以HTDMA與HT DMA-APM系統探討無機鹽奈米微粒的吸溼行為;Investigating the Hygroscopic Behavior of Inorganic Nanoparticles Using HTDMA and HT DMA-APM System|
|Issue Date: ||2015-03-16 16:07:34 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||依據大氣研究調查發現，粒徑界於8-100 nm的氣膠微粒廣泛存在於大氣對流層中，且多屬於凝結核之範圍，其中包含無機鹽類氣膠微粒。而這些無機鹽類微粒大多具有吸溼性，其與環境水汽間的異質成核反應對於大氣中的雲凝結核濃度、地球的輻射收支、氣膠的光學性質、甚至是人體健康皆會造成顯著的影響。|
截至目前為止，許多文獻也提出微粒在DRH前會受水膜之包覆而使結構更扎實且趨近於圓球狀。然而卻僅有少數研究以實驗量測之方法，透過Nano-DMA觀察到在潮解前微粒粒徑大小波動之情形。有鑑於此，本研究分別以HTDMA與APM系統即時量測微粒在不同相對溼度條件下，微粒因吸溼增長所造成的粒徑與質量變化。結合HTDMA與APM系統(合稱HT DMA-APM)所得粒徑與質量兩者數據，即可推算出微粒在潮解前因水膜包覆而造成的密度變化。本研究依據HT DMA-APM量測結果發現100 nm氯化鈉微粒在潮解前(RH=73%)約受7-8個水分子厚度的水膜包覆。水膜包覆之現象即可能改變微粒固、液相表面張力的比值，進而對奈米微粒表面自由能造成影響，以此解釋為何微粒奈米DRH會隨粒徑下降而上升。除此之外，本研究中也以半理論半經驗的多項式函數預測不同NaCl/(NH4)2SO4比例條件的內混微粒DRH，所得結果與實驗結果吻合。而有關於σc/σaq比值改變而影響微粒DRH的粒徑效應關係亦於本論文中進行探討。
;Particles of sizes between 8 and 100 nm in diameter are ubiquitous in the lower troposphere. The way in which these particles including the inorganic salt take up water is critical in determining their role in forming haze and clouds as well as in serving as sites for heterogeneous chemical reactions . This hygroscopic growth plays a significant role in atmospheric phenomena such as cloud-droplet nucleation, earth’s radiation budget, optical properties and human health assessment.
As relative humidity increases, water would be adsorbed onto the surface of inorganic salt particles, such as pure NaCl, (NH4)2SO4 aerosols, or thier externally and internally mixed aerosols. These inorganic particles would initiate a transition from the crystalline to aqueous phase (deliquescence) at the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH). However, the current two physical models proposed in the literatures predicted opposite trend of the size effect on DRH (because of different σc/σaq ratio) . Russell and Ming attributed the inconsistent predictions to the different assumptions of dry particle surface and of surface coated with a few monolayers of water molecules prior to deliquescence . Therefore, for studying the hygroscopic behavior of inorganic salt particles, it is important to investigate the interactions between water and particles at or prior to DRH as well as the effects of particle size, morphology and chemical composition etc..
Many studies have claimed that the inorganic particles would start to be more compacted and spherical due to water adsorbed onto the particle surface, i.e. forming water film, at or prior to DRH. However, only few have experimentally observed the phenomena during deliquescence transition using Nano-DMA measurements . Accordingly, both the hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA, Electrostatic Classifier, TSI 3080, with DMA, TSI 3081/3085) system and the aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM, Kanomax 3601) were applied to investigate the change of particle size and mass in real time. Combining the HTDMA and APM measurements, the particle density changes caused by forming water film during deliquescence transition was observed. The measurements reveals approximately 7 to 8 monolayers of water momlecules on the surface of 100 nm crystalline sodium chloride at relative humidity 73%. This phenomenon may changes the values of σc/σaq as well as surface energy, which provides the explanation why the DRH of the nanoparticles increases as particle size decreases. In addition, we developed a semi-empirical model for predicting the CDRH of internally mixing particles at different NaCl/(NH4)2SO4 ratios, which was also validated through the experimental results. The relationship between the size effects on DRH and σc/σaq was also discussed in the thesis.
|Appears in Collections:||[環境工程研究所 ] 博碩士論文|
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