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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/67515


    Title: Women Trapped: Ann Hui′s Narrative Strategy and Social Critique in Summer Snow, Goddess of Mercy, and The Postmodern Life of My Aunt
    Authors: 吳若綺;Jo-Chi,Wu
    Contributors: 英美語文學系
    Keywords: 許鞍華;女性;地景空間;敘事策略;社會批判;Ann Hui;Female Protagonist;Cityscape;Narrative Strategy;Social Critique
    Date: 2015-06-15
    Issue Date: 2015-07-30 20:23:35 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 作為香港新浪潮的旗手之一,許鞍華從第一部劇情長片《瘋劫》(1979)開始,在香港電影工業耕耘三十多年並累積約二十六部電影創作,其創新的風格與主題為當時疲軟無力的香港電影界注入一股活力。從香港電視廣播有限公司(Television Broadcasts Limited 簡稱:TVB )的創作開始,即可一見作品與香港社會的緊密關係與互動,更不乏取材自香港真實社會的事件與觀察,並在之後的劇情長片裡的故事做更完整的發展,使她的電影獲得「香港社會良心的作品」的美譽(張健德,150)。然而,在現存研究許鞍華電影的論述中卻少見深刻而完整的研究,其研究莫可分成兩派,一派討論許鞍華在《女人四十》(1995)之前的電影作品,皆可見到其尋找身分認同的母題; 另一派則討論《女人四十)之後的作品,此派認為許鞍華從《女人四十》開始,大量使用女性角色,並聚焦許鞍華對女性是否有自我主體性(subjectivity)等性別議題之探討。然而,本篇論文則嘗試著回應以上的討論,認為許鞍華的電影應該超脫各自探討身分認同與女性議題的範疇,因而有著人文主義之關懷。
    因此,本論文分析許鞍華在《女人四十》之後的三部電影:《女人四十》、《玉觀音》與《姨媽的後現代生活》,認為此三部電影所展現的女性主角與空間作為一種新的敘事策略,承襲她一貫的社會批判,從《女人四十》開始,許鞍華明顯大量使用女性主角,透過女性面臨父權與社會中獨有的雙重掙扎與困境,探討女性在香港以及中國社會變遷下所受的衝擊。
    第一章則將《女人四十》視為許鞍華電影作品中的轉折點,對比於之前作品,《女人四十》展現了新的敘事策略,結合女性與空間展演來呈現許鞍華社會批判。透過細膩描繪劇中女主角阿娥作為一個職業婦女的日常生活,掙扎困惑於舊有傳統價值與「做自己」的現代價值觀之中來處理並洞見香港從傳統至現代化,面臨轉型的焦慮與困惑。
    第二章則檢視《玉觀音》(2003),透過結合女性與空間的敘事策略,揭露中國父權無論是在都市化前的雲南或是現代化北京,依舊壓迫女性。作為許鞍華第一部中港合拍電影,許鞍華使用香港特有的警匪類型做為框架,把女性作為主角的敘事策略,陰性化(Feminize)了原本警匪片特有男性情誼架構,其目的則為呈現許鞍華對中國社會的性別不平等的強烈批判,其父權對女性刻板的刻板印象無論是在中國哪個時期,都不會抹除之狀況。
    第三章則論證《姨媽的後現代生活》(2006),透過女主角姨媽在上海與鞍山兩個城市空間中疏離與困境,批判中國對後現代的美好想像。此論文更主張許鞍華除了寫實地描繪姨媽「後現代生活」與電影中的地景,更透過琳達‧哈琴(Linda Hutcheon)在後現代主義理論中提出的反諷(Irony)來強化她對於中國快速現代化的批判力道。片中上海與鞍山兩個城市各自再現毛澤東在60年代超英趕美的現代化;以及鄧小平在90時期的四個現代化,別喻中國面臨後現代化的社會轉型與其影響。透過姨媽最後的結局,其中國父權社會無論在現代或後現代社會,女性依舊逃脫不了中國傳統價值所強加在其身上對於母職的刻板期待,以及女性在社會變遷下所遭遇的雙重壓迫之事實。
    ;Ann Hui On-Wah, the forefront director of the Hong Kong New Wave, has been working on films for over thirty years and has hitherto accumulated twenty-six films. With her first feature film The Secret (Feng jie, 1979), she impressed Hong Kong film industry for its fresh subject and innovative film style. Her consistent concerns for social issues made her films be appreciated as “products of social conscience” (Teo 150). Film critics in general discuss Ann Hui’s films under two social frames, films made before Summer Snow (1995) are approached as identity search, while those made after for confirming women’s subjectivity. However, this thesis believes that Ann Hui’s films should not be limit to these two approaches, especially when her films made after Summer Snow demonstrate a clear new narrative strategy to centralize the female protagonist in the plot and make good use of spaces so as to address both gender and broader social issues. This thesis discusses Ann Hui’s three films Summer Snow (1995), Goddess of Mercy (2003), The Postmodern Life of My Aunt (2005). It focuses on her representation of female protagonists and spaces in each film to lay out Hui’s narrative strategy and the gender and social concerns in each film. This thesis will further argue that Ann Hui’s social critiques are mediated by women’s suffering and trapped situation, directed to modernization of Hong Kong and later China.
    Chapter one sees Summer Snow as Ann Hui’s turning point work, revealing her new narrative strategy. This chapter elaborates on Ann Hui’s “cinematics of everyday” to include Ann Hui’s representation of space, which often implies temporal rupture between the old and the new Hong Kong society, dislocating the female protagonists. It shows how the character May is shown to be disoriented in her daily crossing of the domestic and working spaces at the time when Hong Kong was in the process of modernization. The chapter argues that the anxiety caused by the social change from the traditional to the modern is incarnated in May’s sense of loss as she seems to be excluded from both. To Hui, the issue of women’s subjectivity is not merely a gender issue but a social issue at large.
    Chapter two examines Goddess of Mercy, Ann Hui’s debut Mainland-Hong Kong coproduction film. This chapter argues that despite the film’s co-production nature and its seemingly action film genre, the film is still about women like Ann Hui’s Summer Snow and her other films. The male genre of Hong Kong action film is adopted to reinforce Ann Hui’s social critique of gender inequality. The film in fact uses heterosexual structure in the traditional Hong Kong gangster film format instead of homo social one to reveal the violence patriarchal ideology inflicts upon women. This chapter reads Goddess of Mercy closely to argue that, by adopting a male genre to tell a story about a woman, Ann Hui is making a strong statement about gender inequality in modern Chinese society. The undercover theme, which critics of The Internal Affair has quickly demonstrated to be related to the issue of identity, is borrowed in the film to emphasize women’s loss of subjectivity. It enables the audience to observe the stereotypes the patriarchal society holds about women. The film not only portrays the hidden patriarchal ideology in An Xin’s relationships with the three men, it also makes the violence that kills her and her child an allegory of what Chinese women quietly suffer every day.
    Chapter three looks into Ann Hui’s The Postmodern Life of My Aunt. The film emphasizes the temporal difference between the two stages of China’s modernization from the 60s to the 90s. It “realistically” depicts the protagonist’s life of being trapped in between the modern and the postmodern China. The chapter argues that the film still contains a linear narrative to depict the protagonist as a tragic character with an ambition to pursue a “modern” life in Shanghai as an independent woman but is forced to fall back to being a domestic woman in her “home” at Anshan. Following Linda Hutcheon’s notion of postmodernism, the chapter also argues that the key tag “postmodern” in the film’s title should be understood in this sense as an irony with strong critical power. The Postmodern Life of My Aunt uses postmodern parody to show a woman like Ye is excluded from China’s postmodern drive to globalization and will always falls back to the patriarchal confinement despite her desire to be independent. By calling Ye’s life in Shanghai her “postmodern life” Ann Hui points to the irony of the term and China’s rapid modernization since the 90s.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Program in English and American Language and Literature] Electronic Thesis & Dissertation

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