|Abstract: ||過去研究顯示提取記憶有助於長期記憶的留存,而測驗時個體必須對項目進行 記憶提取,故測驗對於後續記憶表現的影響統稱為測驗效應。由於測驗的效應可能 不僅止於單純記憶上的助益,也會影響到學習者本身對學習的態度或情緒,如:焦 慮。因此,是否應將測驗落實於教育中仍待討論。本研究探討學習者在不同排名所 引發之壓力情境中學習,對於測驗效應的影響。受試者於實驗中學習六十組外語- 母語的字詞配對,其中一半經由重複學習,另一半經由重複測驗,並在學習完畢後 及一周後分別進行總測驗作為學習表現。實驗一結果顯示,在未加入排名回饋的情 況下,本實驗程序可重現測驗效應,且測驗效應於一周後較大。實驗二另將受試者 分成三組,分別接受到:中性(實際答題數)、負向(落後排名)及正向(居前排 名)三種作為每回合後的回饋,顯示了接受負向回饋者在立即總測驗中展現最大的 測驗效應。實驗三將學習項目的分配調整為部分隨機複習或測驗,顯示實驗二的結 果會受到項目安排的影響。實驗四為實驗二之延伸,於配對字詞回憶前加入新舊再 認判斷,並記錄受試者在每一回合的學習/測驗及測驗階段的時腦部所伴隨發生的 電位變化。實驗四行為結果顯示,負向組及正向組在再認作業的表現上無差異,而 在線索回憶作業中,負向組在延遲總測驗中展現較正向組更大的測驗效應。事件相 關電位結果觀察到,在學習階段中,皆可見到事件相關電位在不同的學習方式及不 同的排名回饋上有差異;在測驗階段中,再認重複測驗項目時,較再認重複學習項 目引發更大的左頂葉效果,而接受負向回饋者較正向組更大的引發更大的右額葉效 果。本研究初步檢視了作業表現的排名回饋對於重複學習及重複測驗學習表現的影 響,並透過事件相關電位比較不同學習方式以及不同的回饋下,在學習階段和再認 測驗時的腦部電位活動的差異。;A substantial number of studies have shown that testing is beneficial to long-term retention due to the engagement of retrieval practice. The effects of retrieval on subsequent memory performance are collectively referred to as the testing effect. Nevertheless, whether frequent quizzes are useful in educational intervention is not yet clear because testing not only modulates the learners’ cognition but also their attitudes and affects, such as anxiety.|
The current study examined the effect of performance feedback on the testing effect. Subject learned Swahili–Chinese word pairs (half via repeated study and half via repeated testing). They then engaged in a memory test for the word pairs immediately and one week after the learning phase. Experiment 1 results showed that the testing effect was observed in both the immediate and the delayed test, and the testing effect was greater magnitude in the delayed test than in the immediately test. Experiment 2 divided subjects to three groups, during the repeated testing, who received neutral feedbacks (numbers of correct recall), negative feedbacks (low ranking) and positive feedbacks (high ranking) respectively. In the immediately test, the subjects who in negative group showed greatest magnitude of the testing effect. Experiment 3 demonstrated results of Experiment 2 would be affected when study items for being restudied or testing were not fixed. Experiment 4 was modified from procedures in Experiment 2, subjects engaged in an old/new recognition judgment before recall the Chinese word which paired with the Swahili word. And ERPs (event- related potentials) was recorded during experiment. Behavioral results showed that there was no difference in recognition task between negative feedbacks and positive feedbacks group. However, the testing effect was showed a greater magnitude for negative feedbacks group than positive feedbacks group in the delayed test on the performance of cue- recall task. ERPs results showed that when subject learning the word-pairs, there are differences in repeated study and repeated testing, while differences between negative and positive feedbacks were also been observed. When subject doing a correct old/new recognition judgment, repeated testing items elicited more positive going than repeated study items in left parietal region during target onset 500~800ms. Moreover, negative feedbacks group elicited more positive going than positive feedbacks group in right frontal region during target onset 900~1900ms.
Current study suggested that the testing effect might be modulated by performance feedback, and preliminary showed the ERPs differences within different kinds of learning type and the kind of performance feedbacks.