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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/68066


    Title: 論元雜劇中的母親形象;Mother Images in Yuan Zaju
    Authors: 陳文婷;Chen,Wen-Ting
    Contributors: 中國文學系
    Keywords: 母親形象;元雜劇;旦本戲;母子關係;母女關係;Mother images;Yuan Zaju;Dan play;Mother-son relationship;Mother-daughter relationship
    Date: 2015-07-09
    Issue Date: 2015-09-23 10:21:23 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本文以《論元雜劇中的母親形象》為題,以楊家駱編《全元雜劇》為主要研究材料,研究方法以文本細讀為主,除了中國古典思想以外,另外亦從社會學、家庭史、婦女史的角度切入立論,研究目的是期許能夠豐富元代女性形象的研究,更具體地建構出元雜劇中的母親形象,認識其在歷代文學母親形象中的獨特性與開創性。研究成果發現,元雜劇是讓母親形象從扁平到立體的關鍵分水嶺。眾所周知,元曲最主要的特色就是包羅萬象、表現人情機微,而這項特色的關鍵因素是因為廢除科舉,許多有才華的文人投入戲曲創作,並將自身對現實的關懷投注其中,進而塑造出許多生動的人物形象。從外緣因素來看,蒙元文化對社會的具體影響展現在:階級貴賤、社會法律、家法禮教三種層面,這三者由外而內束縛了女性,影響了元雜劇中母親腳色的命運與遭遇。
      由於元雜劇中以正旦飾演母親的旦本母親劇最能展現具體母親形象,本文即以13本旦本母親劇為分析主體,包括《蝴蝶夢》的王母、《陳母教子》的陳母、《五侯宴》的王嫂和劉夫人、《墻頭馬上》的李千金、《救孝子》的楊母、《灰欄記》的張海棠、《剪髮待賓》的陶母、《爭報恩》的李千嬌、《謝金吾》的佘太君及長國姑、《貨郎旦》的生母劉氏和乳母張三姑、《孟母三移》的孟母、《女學士》的鄭母、《勘金環》的李母等人作為正面母親形象的代表群體。本文從這些劇目的題材與主旨切入分析,分成家庭倫理劇、社會公案劇和其他題材,說明母親形象在這些題材下的代表意義,再由抒情文學與敘事文學中母親形象的回顧與分析,建構出元雜劇中歌頌的正面母親形象,分別是教子有方的賢母、養子重義的繼母、待子以慈的慈母,以及一長擅絕的母親。
      與正面母親形象相對的是反面母親形象,主要有四種類型:強阻姻緣的嚴母、逼女賣笑的鴇母、虐待子女的繼母、不貞不義的母親,而這些反面母親形象通常以配角身分出現,最典型的代表人物包括《西廂記》的老夫人、《曲江池》中李亞仙之母、《酷寒亭》和《還牢末》中的蕭娥、《灰欄記》中馬員外正妻等。她們罔顧子女意願,干涉子女婚姻,甚至無視母道,壓榨或是傷害子女,因此也不配享受身為母親的尊崇地位。然而,無論是正面母親形象或反面母親形象,背後更值得探討的是元雜劇作家藉由這些劇目想要反映的社會問題,包括:寡母撫孤、忠孝兩難、親疏有別、爭產分家、利益婚姻等五大現象。這些現象的產生一方面是由於社會動亂,造成中原家庭的破碎,出現許多孤兒寡母,甚至買賣子女的現象,家庭關係受到衝擊;另一方面也是社會經濟的發達,人們對私有財產益發重視,造成爭產分家和利益婚姻等現象。
      總結來說,元雜劇作為元代的代表文學,其母親形象的價值與貢獻可從以下四種層面來看:其一,社會價值:正面的母親形象不僅能夠移風易俗,達到厚人倫,美風化的效果,更是女教的重要推手;其二,歷史參照:正史中的婦女資料相當稀少,也以烈女節婦為主,元雜劇為當代的母親形象留下有血有肉的註腳,可當心史參考;其三,藝術形象:從劉向《列女傳》開始,多半強調女性貞順、賢明的一面,元雜劇的母親們則是展現出多元的個性,從賢明、節義、慈愛,甚至展現出剛強堅毅的形象,劇作家同時以對比的手法,塑造出不少反面形象,以警惕世人,達到教化的目的;其四,傳世貢獻:元雜劇旦本母親劇不但對後世產生深遠影響,母親形象的塑造更是影響了旦行的演變與分化,讓母親正式在戲曲舞台上閃耀登場,也取得了戲曲史的一席之地。
      透過全面的爬梳整理,本研究發現,元雜劇的母親形象實是元代士人的心理投射,反映了廣大社會的世情百態,代表了特定時空的眼淚,有如凝結的琥珀,值得我們持續品賞與研究。
    ;The study is “The Mother Images of Yuan Zaju”, which is based on ”Full Yuan Drama” edited by Jia-Luo Yang. The method used in this paper is known as “text reading”, include many different angles such as Chinese classical thoughts , perspective of sociology, family history and woman’s history. Research purpose is to rich the studies of Yuan Woman Image, and to shape the mother images concretely, knowing it’s uniqueness and innovations. By my research result, I found Yuan Zaju is the key watershed which made mother images from vague to concrete. We already knew that Yuan Zaju is inclusive of everything, full of human nature; and the key to have this feature because the imperial examination system was abolished, many talent people devoted to the drama creation, projected their self-solicitude into it, moreover, created more and more vivid portraits.Observe from the society factor, Mongol Yuan culture had a lot of impact on society, in particular to show as the following: class differences, social norms and laws, discipline and ritual. And these aspects indeed restricted female from the outside to inside, affected the destiny and situation of the mother figure in Yuan Zaju.

    Since the mother dan plays (which means Zhengdan is a mother) can show much more mother images, this research use 13 mother dan plays as the main object, including Wang mother of "The Butterfly Dream" , Chen mother of "Chen Mother Church child", Wang sister and madam Liu of "Five Marquis feast", Li daughter of “Over the Wall”, Yang mother of "Rescue the Dutiful son", Zhang Haitang of " The Record of the Chalk Circles", Tao mother of " Haircut to Entertain Guests", Li Qian-Jiao of " Dispute of Gratitude ", She Taijun and elder royal aunt of "Xie Jinwu" , Liu mother and Zhang Sangu of "Sellers Dan", Meng mother of "Meng Mother moved Three Times", Zheng mother of "Female Bachelor", Li mother of "Check the Golden Circle", for whom as representatives of the positive mother image groups.
    This paper analyzes the theme and keynote of the plays, classified as family drama, social legal case drama and other subjects, and described the significance of mother images from these themes. First of all, review and analysis mother images by the lyric and narrative literature, in order to construct the positive mother images in Yuan Zaju. These images can be divided into wise mother with bringing up her children properly, stepmother with personal loyalty to raise her children, loving mother with treating her children gentle, and other mothers with one merit.

    Next, we will discuss negative mother images, the opposite for the positive mother images, which is also including four types: Strict mother with preventing children’s marriage, bawd with forcing harlots to work, stepmother with child abuse, mother without chastity and personal loyalty. These negative mother images usually appears as supporting roles, and the most typical representatives include old madam of "The Story of the Western Wing ", Li mother of "Bend of the River", Hsiao E of " Frigid Kiosk" and "The Man Return to Prison", Ma wife of " The Record of the Chalk Circles", etc. They ignored their own children’s wish, interfered children marriage; even didn’t care the motherhood. They pushed and also hurt their children, and therefore not deserving of respect status as a mother. However, more importantly is the Yuan scholars intended to represent the society problem by the dramas, no matter its from positive or negative mother images. And these issues are also what we would like to be discussed, such as taking care of children by widowed mother, the dichotomy dilemma of taking both considerations of loyalty and filial obedience for mother, fighting over the estate, and marriage for the interests. The social unrest phenomenon was due to the central plains broken families, there were many widows and orphans, and even the phenomenon of selling child, family relationships under attack; the other is the socio-economic development, people increasingly pay attention to private property, resulting in fighting over the estate and the interests of the separation of marriage and so on.

    In conclusion, Yuan Zaju, as a representative of the Yuan Dynasty literature, values and contributes their mother images from the following four aspects: First, social values: positive image of the mother is not only able to change the habits increased more human relations and also the human beauty. It is a major force behind female education. Second, historical references: the official history of the women′s records is very scarce, mainly described the chaste wives and paragons. Yuan Zaju left vivid images footnote to contemporary mothers, they are also mind′s history of Yuan Scholars; it Third, the artistic image: from Liu Xiang’s "The Biographies of Women" began, mostly to emphasize female virtue, such as determined and obedient, capable and intelligent, mother images in Yuan Zaju is showing diverse personalities, including capable and intelligent, principled and righteous, tender, and even show a strong determination. At the same time, the playwright also created a lot of negative images for the contrast, to alert the world to achieve enlightenment purposes; Fourth, handed down contribution: mother dan plays of Yuan Zaju not only have a profound impact on future generations, mother Image also affected the evolution and differentiation of Dan row, so the mother roles formally appeared in the opera stage at the first time, also made a place in Chinese opera history..

    In summary, the mother images of Yuan Zaju is the Yuan scholars reflection, the reflection of whole society, represents the tears from that history, just like the congealed amber, which is deserved our continued appreciation and exploration.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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