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    題名: 漢賦四大家大賦之成熟與衰退
    作者: 郭明真;chen,kuo ming
    貢獻者: 中國文學系在職專班
    關鍵詞: 漢賦四大家;漢大賦;寫作技巧;諷喻精神
    日期: 2015-07-01
    上傳時間: 2015-09-23 10:24:16 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 司馬相如、揚雄、班固、張衡後世稱這四人為「漢賦四大家」,此四人的大賦可視為漢大賦演變的過程。本文先針對這四大家的十篇大賦-〈子虛賦〉、〈上林賦〉、〈甘泉賦〉、〈河東賦〉、〈羽獵賦〉、〈長楊賦〉、〈西都賦〉、〈東都賦〉、〈西京賦〉、〈東京賦〉,逐一分析其創作動機、結構布局、修辭手法、時空安排、遣詞造句這五大面向,下文將藉著這五大面向的分析,試著探究出這十篇大賦經過時間流逝,其寫作手法和諷喻精神變化情形。
    經過前面對於十篇作品的分析,而得出這十篇大賦其寫作技巧有模擬前人的部份,如主客問答形式、羅列物象名詞、田獵鋪陳描寫、空間表現手法等;但也有其創新之處,如題材更加豐富細膩,諷喻手法更加多元,句式更加駢儷,征實內容增多等,總之,漢大賦經過這四大家之手,內容上題材更佳多元,而且文詞更趨於工整優美。整體而言,寫作技巧上是日益進步,呈現正成長趨向。
    最後是探討漢大賦這十篇大賦中的諷喻精神。探討這十篇大賦之前,必須先了解世人為何以漢大賦的諷喻精神為審美標準,經研究得知大賦含有諷喻精神和三個因素有關:第一、源於《詩經》。從劉勰和班固的言論可知,賦乃源自於《詩經》,故賦自然被期待能和《詩經》一般,內容寄寓美刺之意;第二、受縱橫家影響。不論是古代的班固,或是近代的劉師培和章學誠都指出漢賦和縱橫家有所淵源,且漢賦作家中,不乏身兼行人之官的身份,故賦作也承襲縱橫家所特有的諷喻內容;第三、帝王默許。賦作因為帝王默許寓有諷意,故賦作家才能持續為之。因為這三個因素的交互作用之下,世人往往期待漢大賦寓含諷喻內容。
    探討漢賦寓含諷喻的原因後,接著比較研究這十篇賦作,以得出漢賦四大家的諷喻精神。接著再依對當代寓含諷喻且又蘊含政治期待感的標準,來評判這四大家在這十篇大賦中,所透露出的諷喻精神的差異。經分析比較後,得出司馬相如的諷喻精神是最符合古代詩經「刺」的精神,再來是揚雄,因其對政治期待感較低,故諷刺感濃厚,在「刺」的精神上,是不如司馬相如的,最後班固和張衡因為並無諷喻當代的內容,因此諷喻精神又不如揚雄。所以結論為漢賦四大家的諷喻精神從司馬相如到張衡,呈現負成長的現象。
    ;ABSTRACT
    Simaxiangru, Yang Xiong, Bangu, Zhang Heng later called the four as "Han Fu four people", this can be regarded as large fu of Han Dynasty process of evolution. This article first for all of ten large fu of Han Dynasty - , , , , , ,, , , , one by one analysis of theys creative motivation, structure and layout, rhetorical, time and space writing style.We can through the analysis the five-oriented, try to explore out of the evolve of writing style and sarcastic spirit after the passage of time.

    After the previous works for ten articles analyzed to derive the ten large fu have part of their writing skills analog predecessors, such as the questions and answers of host and guest, a list of objects noun, hunting elaborate description, performance space operandi; but there are also its innovation place, such as the subject matter is more rich and delicate, sarcastic approach more diverse, more Parallelism sentence, true content increases, etc. In short, the large fu of Han Dynasty through the hands of four people on the content of the subject matter better pluralism, and the text words tend to be more neat and beautiful. Overall, progress on writing skills is progressive, it showed a positive growth trend.

    Finally, explore the sarcastic spirit of this ten large fu of Han Dynasty. Before exploring these ten Fu, you must understand at first why people regarded sarcastic spirit of large Fu as aesthetic standards, the research results tell us three factors that the ten large Fu contain sarcastic spirit: first, from the " The book of odes and hymns." From Liu Xie and Bangu’s reaserch, Fu is derived from the " The book of odes and hymns ",so Fu is expected to have sarcastic spirit such as " The book of odes and hymns " .,second,Fu is affected by strategists. Whether ancient Bangu, or modern Liu Shipei and Zhang Xuecheng pointed out Fu and strategists have some origins, and there are many Fu writer of Han Dynasty who are also the officer′s,so Fu also have sarcastic spirit that strategists have ; and third, the emperor acquiescence sarcastic spirit . Because the emperor acquiesced Fu have sarcastic spirit intention, it iencourage writers to continue to do this.Because under the interaction of these three factors, people tend to look Fu with sarcastic spirit.

    After research the factors that make Fu of Han Dynasty have sarcastic spirit, I will compared "Han Fu four people’s" difference of the sarcastic spirit with the Standard that have sarcastic spirit in article and contain expected for their country. After analysis and comparison, Simaxiangru’s sarcastic spirit is most consistent with " The book of odes and hymns.", second-class is Yang Xiong, because he have lower expectations for his country , it is a strong sense of irony, so the sarcastic spirit is not as good as Simaxiangru. Finally Bangu and Zhang Heng’s sarcastic spirit are most lowest , because there is no irony for their country, so their sarcastic spirit is not as good as Yang Xiong. So the conclusion is "Han Fu four people’s" sarcastic spirit that from Simaxiangru to Zhang Heng appear a negative growth phenomenon.
    顯示於類別:[中國文學系碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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