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    题名: 美國與我國庇護工場法制之比較研究;A Comparative Study of Legal Systems in Sheltered Workshops between the United States and Taiwan
    作者: 陳怡璇;Chen,Yi-hsuan
    贡献者: 法律與政府研究所
    关键词: 庇護工場;庇護性就業;職業重建服務
    日期: 2015-07-07
    上传时间: 2015-09-23 11:30:38 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 對於身心障礙者而言,職業重建服務具有非常重要的意義,可以針對身心障礙者的需求給予幫助。庇護工場屬於職業重建的一環,其不但提供職業訓練服務讓身心障礙者培養自身能力,亦提供庇護性就業讓身心障礙者可以擁有工作。我國早期的庇護工場可由多個目的事業主管機關設置,功能多元,包括生活照顧、職能強化以及庇護性就業,但是這卻引發庇護工場定位不明確的疑義。
    為了解決爭議,現行的身心障礙者權益保障法規定庇護工場由勞工主管機關管轄,將庇護工場的功能限縮在僅提供庇護性就業服務。然而,當政府逐漸抽離支持輔助的角色,庇護工場在許多方面都面臨挑戰,例如職業輔導評量、產能核薪等問題,因此有必要重新檢視我國庇護工場的規定。美國庇護工場的規定是由各州政府自行訂立,俄克拉荷馬州於2011年制定庇護工場法,將庇護工場的管理與監督提升至州法的地位,針對庇護工場的管理、優先採購,以及庇護性就業者的薪資計算標準進行規範,與我國目前庇護工場的狀況相似。參酌美國庇護工場的體制,可以彌補我國在庇護工場管理制度上的不足之處,作為我國庇護工場法制上之借鏡。
    ;For people with disabilities, the rehabilitation services which can give help for disabled persons have a very important significance. Sheltered workshops belonging to a part of rehabilitation services , they provide not only vocational training services allowed disabled persons to cultivate their ability,but also provide sheltered employment to let disabled persons get jobs. Early, Taiwan sheltered workshops were set by supervisory authorities of utility agencies, having diverse features, including
    life care, strengthen vocational ablity and sheltered employment, but it was controversial that the positions of sheltered wokshops were not clear.
    In order to resolve the dispute, the current Disbilities Rights Protection Act stipulate that sheltered workshops are governed by the Department of Labor,and the functions of sheltered worshops are narrowed only on sheltered employment services. However, when the government pulls out the supporting role, sheltered workshops are challenged in many ways,such as individualizd vocational evaluation plans, same pay for same work and so on, therefore, it is necessary to re-examine the provisions of sheltered workshops. Provisions of the United States of sheltered workshops are made by the state governments themselves, and the Oklahoma has formulated the Sheltered Workshops Act in 2011, enhancing the status of the management and supervision in sheltered workshops to state law, regulating the management of sheltered workshops, preferential procurement, as well as the calculation standards of wage for people who are engaged in sheltered employment, and this situation was similar to Taiwan. In view of the systems in sheltered workshops of the United States, we can make up the shortcomings of our sheltered workshops in the management systems, in order to propose more adjustments to our legal systems in sheltered workshops.
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