English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 68069/68069 (100%)
Visitors : 23145107      Online Users : 176
RC Version 7.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version


    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/68429


    Title: 女性在客家喪禮的性別階序與文化意涵:以苗栗地區為例
    Authors: 黃雅鈴;Huang,Ya-ling
    Contributors: 客家社會文化研究所
    Keywords: 客家;喪禮;女性;性別;階序;Hakka;funeral;female;gender;hierarchy
    Date: 2015-07-20
    Issue Date: 2015-09-23 11:33:59 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 喪禮與死亡一直是台灣的忌諱議題,而在現今的苗栗客家地區亦是如此。客家喪禮隨著社會文化脈絡的轉變,在儀式與習俗之間有所簡化、消逝或替代,普遍大眾對於喪禮的流程與意義是不清楚的,在其認為合理的範圍之下,常按照著殯葬業者的指示進行儀式的執行,殯葬業者在喪禮中扮演著重要的協助者。而在客家喪禮之中,性別的階序與意涵是如何排列,以及女性在此種的性別階序之中的態度是抗拒、接受或協商,此些都是本文想要探討的重點。本文以質性研究中的紮根理論方法進行探討,藉由訪談中的資料進行歸納與分析,重複的閱讀訪談者的內容,從個案中的脈絡去推論,將喪禮中行動者所談及的儀式習俗與其在此之中被賦予的職責,建立新的分類,將喪禮中的性別秩序重新呈現。
      台灣的社會文化是以宗族體制中男性傳承為主的脈絡為背景,從客家喪禮的儀式與習俗來看,女性在喪禮中的性別階序可以依據「性別二分」、「父系繼承」與「她者化女人」三者的分類解釋說明。在性別二分的分類中,傳統性別的劃分,以生理為基礎的區隔來劃定男主外女主內的職場領域,因而在喪禮中的分類也是如此,但現今苗栗的客家喪禮中,有關於家庭內部勞務的分工有由女性與男性來負責的案例;而在父系繼承的分類中,是以男性為血脈傳承的角度來看,喪禮中的捧斗、執幡、抽褲等儀式,皆是男性繼承的象徵,女性在此之中是沒有獨立主體與發聲位置的;她者化女人的分類,則是將女性視為她者或不潔的象徵,女性在此分類中是被歧視的一方,如同喪禮中的哭路頭、未婚不可上祖牌、行女兒七時家中的人必須迴避等,此些儀式與習俗的展現,再再顯示了女性她者化現象至今依舊,父權紅利的展現深入其中。
      然而,客家喪禮中的性別階序實際上是有所鬆動的,由觀察到的現象顯示,雖然多數女性在喪禮中的態度是自我規訓,隱身於傳統的性別階序之中,但隨著社會文化脈絡的演進,性別二分的家務與職場領域有新的呈現,有些家庭是由女性外出工作,男性來負責家內的勞務與侍奉長輩也時有所見,此類家庭進而在喪禮的性別階序之中,也隨之產生變化,例如傳統由女性進行供飯的責任,也因此而轉由男性負責。結構力量是透過人的行動才能現身的,隨然喪禮中的父權紅利仍是隱涉其中,但從本研究的案例中看到女性在客家喪禮的儀式與習俗中,性別階序已經有所改變,此也表示在喪禮中以父系繼承為主軸的父權紅利現象,在未來亦是可以慢慢消除的。
    ;Funeral and death are always topics avoided to be talked in Taiwan. Till now, it still remained the same in Miaoli Hakkas. With the change of social culture, Hakkas funerals also changed, disappeared or replaced in ritual or custom. The common people are not familiar with funeral procedures or meanings so they often follow the instructions of funeral dealers to execute in the reasonable range what they think. The funeral dealer plays an important role of assistant in the funeral. In Hakkas funeral, how gender hierarchy and meanings are arranged and women’s attitude in such gender hierarchy like resistance, acceptance or negotiation are all key points discussed in this paper. This paper explored in root theory in qualitative research and made conclusion and analysis from data in interviews. By repeating contents of the interviewees, it deduced from cases to build new category from the rituals and customs discussed by funeral actors and their responsibilities. In this way, gender hierarchy in the funeral was appeared again.
    Taiwan social culture takes male inheritance in clan system as background. From the perspective of funeral rituals and customs, female can be explained by three categories, namely gender division, patriarchal inheritance and female as other in the gender hierarchy. In terms of gender division, the traditional gender is divided based on physiology to judge occupation of males in charge of outside affairs and females in charge of internal affairs. Therefore, it remains the same in the funeral classification. However, there appear cases that internal labor works are done by both males and females in Miaoli Hakkas funerals today. In the classification of patriarchal inheritance, from the perspective of males as blood inheritance, rituals like fight, holding streamer and taking pants are all symbols of male inheritance. Females have no independent subject and right to speak. In terms of female as other, females are treated as others or unclean symbol. They are the ones to be discriminated, just like crying, no right to hold ancestor tablet for the unmarried, the family member avoiding to behave daughter seven in the funeral. These rituals again showed female as other still remains till now and paternity rights prevail.
      However, gender hierarchy in Hakkas funerals actually lose to some degree. It can be learned from the observations that most females hold self-discipline attitude in the funeral which is hidden behind traditional gender hierarchy, but housework and occupation of gender division newly appeared with the evolution of social culture. In some families, females are out for work and males are responsible for house work and serve the elderly sometimes. This kind of family is also different in the gender sequence of funeral. For example, the traditional responsibility of meal was done by males instead of females. Structure strength is displayed by human action. With the disappearance of paternity in the funeral, it can be learned from the cases in this study that female’s gender sequence has changed in Hakka funeral rituals and customs. It also means paternity bonus of patriarchal inheritance in the funeral is possible to be eliminated in the future.
    Appears in Collections:[客家社會文化研究所] 博碩士論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    index.html0KbHTML513View/Open


    All items in NCUIR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    ::: Copyright National Central University. | 國立中央大學圖書館版權所有 | 收藏本站 | 設為首頁 | 最佳瀏覽畫面: 1024*768 | 建站日期:8-24-2009 :::
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback  - 隱私權政策聲明