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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/68468


    Title: 宋代天台山家山外第二次論諍─以智者大師的原始思想決疑;The second debate between the ";Mountain School";and the ";Non-Mountain School";of Tiantai tradition in Sung dynasty: Resolving doubts from Master Zhiyi′s thought
    Authors: 吳子正;WU,TZU-CHENG
    Contributors: 哲學研究所
    Keywords: 智者大師;天台宗;大乘起信論;真妄心觀;別理隨緣;色心雙具三千;無情有性;知禮大師;Zhiyi;Tiantai tradition;The Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna;the contemplation of true or fallacious mind;specific teachings are also conditions of the development of ignorance;both the mind and matter contain three thousand worlds;non-sentient beings have buddhahood;Zhili
    Date: 2015-07-24
    Issue Date: 2015-09-23 11:36:42 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 中文摘要

    本論文探討宋代天台宗山家山外派第二次論諍的始末,並以智者大師的思想來做一個決疑標準。

    宋代天台宗,產生了將近四十年的論諍,有其遠因與近因。遠因在於:連年的戰亂與法難,導致天台教典的散失。近因在於:《大乘起信論》中的思想滲入華嚴宗;在此之後,唐代的湛然大師,引用了《大乘起信論》中的文句,使得後人對原本的天台教義產生混淆,於是在宋代,產生了天台宗內的山家派與山外派的論諍。吾人面對龐大而繁雜的天台諸部教典,作思想義理分析和文獻整理的工作,所以採用了文獻分析和義理分析的方法,試圖解決宋代天台宗的論諍。

    而宋代天台宗的第二次論諍,包含了四大主題:真妄心觀、別理隨緣、色心雙具三千、無情有性等四大主題。在四次論諍中,此第二次論諍,在議題和份量上都最重要,具有研究的價值與承先啟後的代表性,經過吾人的考察,對於「真妄心觀」來說,知禮大師遵從了智者大師的思想,以觀妄心為主。而山外派諸師則以觀真心為主要;在「別理隨緣」這方面,知禮大師對華嚴宗的判教,做了判別:《大乘起信論》為「大乘終教」、唯識宗屬於「大乘始教」,此二者在天台宗,均屬於「別教」而非「圓教」,而且知禮大師批評華嚴宗之「真如隨緣」之說,提出天台宗之本義是「別理隨緣」,即「別教」可以隨緣,具足一切法;在「色心雙具三千」之諍議上,知禮大師依「色心不二」的觀點,成功的詮釋了「色心雙具三千」,而山外派諸師,則是以「心」為主體,只認可「心具三千」,「色不具三千」。在「無情有性」方面,知禮大師在「色心雙具三千」的基礎上,論述「無情有性」,山外諸師則以為:「無情無性」。

    就宋代天台山家派與山外派第二次的論諍來說,山家派的代表知禮大師,嚴守著從智者大師、湛然大師的教義與修行基礎,意圖在宋代重振天台宗;而山外派諸師的思想,由於對自宗教典的不熟稔,並且思想上向華嚴宗靠攏,無法嚴守天台宗的根本教義與精神。

    關鍵詞:智者大師、天台宗、大乘起信論、真妄心觀、別理隨緣、色心雙具三千、無情有性、知禮大師
    ;The second debate between the "Mountain School" and the "Non-Mountain School" of Tiantai tradition in Sung dynasty: Resolving doubts from Master Zhiyi′s thought

    Abstract

    This dissertation explores the issue of the second debate between two schools of Tiantai tradition in Sung dynasty, the "Mountain School" (Shanjia) and the "Non-Mountain School" (Shanwaijia), and attempts to apply master Zhiyi’s thought to resolve the controversies of that debate.

    There are remote and immediate causes of the debate which continues for nearly forty years. The remote cause arose from wars and calamities of dharma over the years, which caused the disappearance of Tiantai main texts. The immediate cause came from the employment of the thoughts of the Huayen School in the interpretation of The Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna, especially by master Zhanran in Tang dynasty; It resulted in confusions of the interpretations of the orthodox doctrine of Tiantai School among later Tiantai Buddhists, henceforth the ignition of the debate between the "Mountain School" and the "Non-Mountain School". In order to resolve the controversies, one needs to sort out doctrinal analysis and literature reviews from huge amounts of complicated Tiantai texts. This thesis tries to work it out by the use of an analytical approach to deal with the doctrinal and literature exegesis.

    Among four debates in Tiantai tradition, the second debate is the most important one in terms of the profundity and significance of the issues involved. There are four main issues: “the contemplation of true or fallacious mind ”, “specific teachings are also conditions of the development of ignorance”, “both the mind and matter contain three thousand worlds”, and “non-sentient beings have buddhahood”.

    On the issue of “contemplation of true or fallacious”, master Zhili follows master Zhiyi’s conception, and supports the assertion of “contemplation of fallacious mind ”, while other masters in the "Non-Mountain School" opt for “contemplation of true mind ”. On “specific teachings are also conditions of the development of ignorance”, Zhili made a differentiation regarding Huayen Teaching: he judged that The Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna and Huayen School both belongs to the Final stage of Mahāyāna, and the Consciousness-only school belongs to the Initial stage of Mahāyāna, but both of them still belong to specific teaching rather than Perfect or Round teaching. Besides, Zhili criticizes Huayen’s rejection of “specific teachings are also conditions of the development of ignorance” and maintains that Tiantai’s original teaching reveals that “ specific teaching” , being specific, contains the conditions of ignorance, hence of everything.

    On the debate of “both the mind and matter contain three thousand worlds”, Zhili bases his view on “the non-duality of mind and matter”, and successfully interprets “both the mind and matter contain three thousand worlds”, while masters in the "Non-Mountain School" cling to the subjectivity of mind and hold that only mind contains three thousand worlds, not the matter. On the discussion of “non-sentient beings have buddhahood”, Zhili furthers his view that on the basis of “both the mind and matter contain three thousand worlds”, non-sentient beings do have buddhahood, in contrast to other masters in the "Non-Mountain School" who claim that non-sentient beings do not have buddhahood.

    Based on the examination of the second debate, this study concludes that master Zhili, who represents the "Mountain School", strictly follows the doctrines and practices received from masters Zhiyi and Zhanran. His intention is to revive Tiantai tradition. For masters of the "Non-Mountain School", due to the unfamiliarity of texts of their own school, and the tendency of inclination to Huayen’s thoughts, they were unable to stick closely to the fundamental doctrines and spirit of Tiantai tradition.

    Keywords:Zhiyi, Tiantai tradition, The Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna,
    the contemplation of true or fallacious mind , specific teachings are also conditions of the development of ignorance, both the mind and matter contain three thousand worlds, non-sentient beings have buddhahood, Zhili.
    Appears in Collections:[哲學研究所] 博碩士論文

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