|Abstract: ||本論文主要探討程明道（名顥，1032-1085）的道德哲學，並將其置於整個宋明儒學發展史的脈絡中，探索其意義。本論文尤其以「應物」觀念為線索，試圖說明程明道如何理解聖人德性，並進一步完成建構儒家玄理之學的思想歷程。 |
;The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the moral philosophy of Cheng Ming-dao(程明道, 1032-1085) and explore the significance of his theory in Neo-Confucian tradition. In this thesis, I try to explicate his conception of “Response to Things(應物)” with his understanding of Sage and analyses how Cheng constructs with its help his onto-metaphysical conception of Confucianism.
I first give a brief history of the idea of “Response to Things.” This idea appears quite often in the development from Pre-Qin Zhuangzi(莊子), Han to Wei-Jin Taoist philosophies. According to their writings, the virtue of Sage is closely related to his response to all things happening in every situation. In his essay on moral cultivation, Cheng Ming-dao united the concept of Tian-li(天理) with the “Response to Things” and conferred it with a creative Confucian interpretation. I call this a Confucian theory of “Response to Things according to the Way of Heaven(天理應物)”, and I explain the importance of this theory in the turn and development of the Song-Ming Confucian tradition.
Secondly, one of the central doctrines of Neo-Confucianism is an idea about “Transmission of the Way(道統)”. Just like Zhou Lian-xi(周濂溪), Cheng Ming-dao also paid special attention to the roles and status of Confucius’ beloved disciple Yan Hui(顔回). In Cheng’s interpretation, Yan Hui is not merely a historical character, but an incarnation of Confucian moral cultivation. He made a distinction between the Confucian theories of Yan Hui and Mencius and absorbing the latter in terms of the former. However, his interpretation was blurred by Zhu Xi(朱熹) and not until Ming Dynasty when it was revived and supported by Wang Yang-ming(王陽明) and his school.
Thirdly, I argue that the main philosophical concepts of Cheng Ming-dao are based on the insights of The Book of Changes. Both Cheng brothers emphasize but differently the implications of the “Mountain Hexagram(艮卦)” in the achievement of sageness and the theory of self-cultivation. Cheng Yi-chuan, and later Zhu Xi, employ the teaching of The Great Learning in their interpretation, which is basically an intellectual approach, while Cheng Ming-dao’s interpretation is based upon his theories of Response to Things according to the Way of Heaven and moral cultivation of Ti-yong(體用) as oneness.
Finally, I attempt to analyze and differentiate Cheng Ming-dao’s interpretation of Mencius both from Cheng Yi-chuan and Zhu Xi and from Lu Xiang-shan(陸象山). Cheng-Zhu’s interpretation is basically intellectualistic and diverged from Mencius. Lu Xiang-shan follows closely the basic teaching of Mencius in employing his original mind as the core concept, but is somewhat straight forward. Cheng Ming-dao adopts Mencius’ idea of moral mind as transcendental and infinite, but his approach, unlike Lu’s, investigates further how the Way of Heaven implicates objectivity and moral motivation within the subjectivity of the moral mind. I argue that Cheng’s philosophical approach could be understood from the transcendental perspective of “ response to the other”. It shows that Cheng’s interpretation has achieved a special onto-metaphysical understanding of Mencius quite different from Song-Ming Confucians in general.