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|題名: ||郵輪觀光產業對於貝里斯社會及環境衝擊評估;Evaluation of Social and Environmental Impacts of Cruise Ship Tourism In Belize|
|作者: ||柯瑞莎;Cardinez,Elsa Marisa|
|關鍵詞: ||層次分析法;多準則決策分析;郵輪觀光產業;環境損害;Analytic Hierarchy Process;Multi-Criteria Decision Making;Cruise Ship Tourism;Environmental Damage|
|上傳時間: ||2015-09-23 11:58:18 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: ||貝里斯的郵輪觀光產業自2005 年開始顯著成長，此項產業發展雖然具有可觀的經濟收益，但也會對陸地和海洋環境，以及當地人民的生活產生一些衝擊。本論文的研究範圍即針對搭乘遊輪前來貝里斯的觀光客於境內停留期間，造成上述的環境與生活衝擊程度進行評估；評估方法主要應用可結合定量和定性的多準則決策分析法及層次分析法 (AHP)，由被徵詢的民眾、政府官員與專家等三個層次，反覆成對比較所選定的衝擊和影響項目，探討各層次的徵詢代表對於影響項目的衝擊輕重排序，再將各層次的判斷結果進行評比，並估算這些衝擊項目所衍生的成本，用以和觀光收益相比較。貝里斯城是貝里斯的旅遊產業的中心，專供遊輪觀光客上岸與離岸的「堡壘街旅遊村 (FSTV)」即座落於貝里斯城中心；本研究的民眾層次取樣代表，係來自於貝里斯城FSTV附近的居民。|
應用AHP分析研究顯示，觀光客產生的固體廢物衝擊，無論自評比序列或成本損失方面，評估結果是影響最大的衝擊項目，其次依序是遊輪廢水污染、交通阻塞問題、空氣污染及基礎設施的損害衝擊。上述評估項目的總成本接近每年5,500萬美元 (以2016為計算基準年) ，而觀光收益，包括人頭稅及上岸消費之收益，則為每年約7, 000萬美元。雖然目前的收益似乎仍大於衝擊成本，但值得注意的是，本研究尚未估計潛在的環境機會成本。
;Cruise Tourism is the epitome of the tourism industry presently in Belize, and it was significant growth since 2005. Although the continuing growth of this industry has generated considerably economic benefits, but also breeds the effects of terrestrial and marine environment as well as the impacts on the lives of people in this nation.
With the growing concerns of the impact and level of damage from this sector, this study developed an organizational framework that aimed to assess the selected impacts from a list of potential impacts. This research employed multi-criteria decision making method and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to rank the environmental and living impact items from different perspective levels including local residents, the authorized government personnel, and the experts. These impacts and benefits from the cruise ship tourism industry were then quantified to conduct a cost benefit comparison.
Belize City is the hub of tourism industry in Belize because it is the present home of the Fort Street Tourism Village (FSTV) where cruise passengers disembark and return to their cruise ship. The perception of the residents, who are living in the vicinity of FSTV were investigated and assessed to determine their level of awareness of the potential risks and damages generated as a results of cruise tourism.
Application of AHP analysis, this study has shown that the solid waste impact generated from the cruise ship tourists, regardless of ranking sequence or cost assessment are the most impacting item on environment and the community. Following the solid waste impact is sequentially the wastewater of cruise ship, traffic congestion, air pollution and the damages of infrastructure. The total cost generated from these impacts estimated by this research is up to nearly US$ 55 million per year which was taking the year of 2016 as the base year of currency. The income from the cruise ship tourism industry, including head taxes and ashore expenditure, are about $ 70 million a year. Though earnings appear to be greater than the impact cost, but it is worth to note that this study has not yet to estimate the environmental opportunity costs.
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