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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/69123


    Title: 晶圓表面處理製程作業區勞工職業暴露與健康風險評估;Labor Occupational Exposure and Health Risk Assessment of Wafer Surface Process
    Authors: 林家麟;LIN,JIA-LIN
    Contributors: 環境工程研究所
    Keywords: 半導體廠;作業環境監測;初步危害分析;相加效應評估;職業暴露;健康風險評估;Semiconductor plant;working environment monitoring;preliminary hazard analysis;additive effect assessment;occupational exposure assessment;health risk assessment
    Date: 2015-07-27
    Issue Date: 2015-09-23 15:29:41 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 半導體廠製程上使用有機溶劑種類非常多,一般勞工在長時間暴露下會造成健康危害,甚至會造成職業病。本研究針對某廠半導體晶圓表面處理製程的勞工進行職業暴露與健康風險評估,以掌握勞工的實際暴露型態。化學品暴露評估方法及對策包含:初步危害分析、相加效應評估、健康風險評估、健檢數據異常分析與化學品分級管理。
    本研究選擇某廠有機溶劑使用相似的六個作業區為研究對象,分別是清洗作業區(SEG01)、電子作業黃光區(SEG02)、去光阻作業區(SEG03)、濕式去光阻區(SEG05)、電子作業研磨區(SEG09)與濕蝕刻區(SEG17)。
    以2010~2014年作業環境監測結果計算相加效應,清洗作業區(SEG01)為0.11、電子作業黃光區(SEG02)為0.13、去光阻作業區(SEG03)為0.20、濕式去光阻區(SEG05)為0.13、電子作業研磨區(SEG09)為0.06、濕蝕刻區(SEG17)為0.18,其中以去光阻作業區(SEG03)為最高,但各群組相加效應都小於1,符合法規要求。
    在健康風險評估方面,慢性吸入危害風險度(Hazard Index, HI)由高至低依序為:SEG03(1.72*10-1)、SEG05(1.15*10-1)、SEG09(1.22*10-3)、SEG01(8.22*10-4)、SEG17(6.24*10-4)與SEG02(1.68*10-4),評估後都小於法定容許濃度標準1。若以作業相似的區域作比較,去光阻作業區(SEG03)危害高於濕式去光阻區(SEG05),濕蝕刻區(SEG17)則劣於電子黃光作業區(SEG02),與相加效應評估結果相同。
    健康檢查異常率排序依序為SEG03去光阻作業區(16.2%)、SEG01清洗作業區(15.3%)、SEG05濕式去光阻區(11.5%)、SEG02電子作業黃光區(10.9%)、SEG17濕蝕刻區(10.8%)與SEG09電子作業研磨區(10.6%)。以T檢定來評估各工作區族群對比行政人員的肌酸酐與腎絲球過濾速率檢測數據,發現SEG02、SEG05、SEG09與SEG17 肌酸酐具有顯著差異,另再評估SEG02和SEG17兩相似作業區相同危害暴露物質分別為丙酮、甲酚及PGMEA (Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ethyl Acetate),評估結果發現甲酚具有顯著差異。
    綜合上述評估結果,SEG03風險值最高,致因危害物質為萘、丙酮、異丙醇及NMP (N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone)。SEG05風險值次高,危害物質為萘、丙酮及異丙醇。上述區域工作人員都應加強機台漏液檢測頻率、防護器具保養、化學品安全貯存及執行機台狀態掛牌機制。SEG02和SEG17的甲酚可能為工作人員肌酸酐健檢異常的致因物質,應增加兩作業區人員環境暴露監測頻率而且光阻液使用完容器不以人工更換。
    ;Semiconductor factories use many kinds of organic solvents in their manufacturing processes which will cause health hazards or to the worse occupational diseases for laborers exposing themselves to this environment for long duration of time. This study aims to evaluate health risk of occupational exposure for laborers working in a wafer-surface treatment process of a semiconductor plant to realize their actual exposure pattern. The methods of chemicals exposure assessment and control measure include preliminary hazard analysis, additive effect assessment, health risk assessment, abnormal health data analysis, and chemicals management classification.
    Six working groups with similar organic solvent exposure were selected as study targets. They include cleaning operation area (SEG01), electronically photolithography zone (SEG02), photo resisting area (SEG03), wet photo resisting area (SEG05), electronically grinding zone (SEG09), and wet etching zone (SEG17).
    The values of additive effect regarding to chemicals exposure for laborers based on environmental monitoring data from 2010 to 2014 are as follows. The value of 0.11 for cleaning area (SEG01), 0.13 for electronically photolithography zone (SEG02), 0.20 for photo resisting area (SEG03), 0.13 for wet photo resisting area (SEG05), 0.06 for electronically grinding zone (SEG09), and 0.18 for wet etching zone (SEG17). Among various values, the value of photo resisting area (SEG03) is the highest. However, the values of additive effect in each working group are all smaller than 1 and thus they meet regulatory requirements.
    According to health risk assessment, the hazard index (HI) of chronic inhalation for each group in descending order is SEG03 (1.72 * 10-1), SEG05 (1.15 * 10-1), SEG09 (1.22 * 10-3), SEG01 (8.22 * 10-4), SEG17 (6.24 * 10-4), and SEG02 (1.68 * 10-4). The computed values are all smaller than one, the allowable criterion. For laborers working in the similar area, the health hazard in the photo resisting area (SEG03) is more severe than that in the wet photo resisting area (SEG05) and the wet etching zone (SEG17) is inferior to he electronically yellow-ray zone (SEG02). The result is similar to that of additive effect.
    The decending order of abnormal rate for health examination data is the photo resisting area (SEG03, 16.2%), the cleaning area (SEG01, 15.3%), the wet photo resisting area (SEG05, 11.5%), the electronically photolithography zone (SEG02, 10.9%), the wet etching zone (SEG17, 10.8%), and the electronically grinding zone (SEG09, 10.6%). For paired t-test between laborers of each working area and administrative staff on creatine and glomerular filtration rate, significant differences were found for laborers in the areas of SEG02, SEG05, SEG09, and SEG17. The hazardous materials both used in SEG02 and SEG17 were acetone, phenol and PGMEA (Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ethyl Acetate) and the quantity of phenol was found with significant difference from the comparison.
    To sum up the above assessments, SEG03 was ranked as the area with the highest risk and the causal hazardous substances were naphthalene, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and NMP (N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone). The health risk of SEG05 was ranked second with causal hazardous substances including naphthalene, acetone and isopropanol. The laborers in the above mentioned areas should enhance the checking frequency of machine leakage, protective equipment maintenance, safety of chemicals storage, and fault machine listing mechanism. The phenol used in SEG02 and SEG17 is probably the causing substance of creatinine abnormality of laborers in health examination. The monitoring frequency for environmental exposure of laborers in these two areas should be increased and discard manual replacement of the photoresist agent.
    Appears in Collections:[環境工程研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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