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    題名: 焦竑一貫之學研究;The study of Jiao Hong′s One Principle Runs Through it all
    作者: 廖鈺婷;Liao,Yu-Ting
    貢獻者: 中國文學系
    關鍵詞: 焦竑;晚明;泰州學派;澹園集;焦氏筆乘;Jiao Hong;Late Ming Dynasty;Tai Zhou School;Dan Yuan Ji;Jiao Shi Bi Cheng
    日期: 2016-07-27
    上傳時間: 2016-10-13 12:39:10 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 本文的研究動機在於焦竑身為身為晚明有影響力的學者,但他的重要性一直被忽略,現今的研究者不多,然而關於焦竑的學術、思想等方面的研究,尚有許多值得詳加探討的議題未完全展開。筆者欲探究焦竑的哲學思想,並與晚明思想史上的學術思潮一起討論,希望能夠釐清與建構焦竑哲學的特色,及其在晚明哲學中應的定位與影響。
    焦竑對心性的理解,可從以虛寂本體理解,而不從道德根源的角度立論,以虛寂本體無限、不能用善惡匡限的角度說明至善,所以不如孟子、陽明從道德根源談至善明確、易解。其工夫實踐約可分成兩個進路,首先是本體工夫,乃順著心性以虛寂為至善而發,務在清除使性不能顯現的障蔽;另一個是外在的博學工夫,以虛寂知道難知,故須藉問學作為契道、成聖的方便,所以焦氏的工夫論以,學有所本、本立道生為特色,但他對博學的解釋,不如朱子那般定義明確,再加上其在思想方面無一套系統性的著作,致使後人在討論焦竑的思想特徵時,容易將他的心性與博學工夫割裂成兩套,實則焦氏在博學、考據的成就,與他對虛寂本體的理解、工夫實踐有密切的關聯。
    就心性、工夫的論述看來,焦竑在後世被誤解為只重本體不談工夫的狂禪,是其來有自;但從理論架構看來,焦氏是由儒家虛寂本體貫徹對空、無的理解,依舊是從儒家重本體的角度解釋佛老,但此本體已不是先秦以仁義禮智為內容的道德本體,而是以其虛故能創生、有無限可能的虛寂本體。
    本文題目《焦竑一貫之學研究》的「一貫之學」,乃指涉焦竑以虛寂本體為主軸,融會三教心性、工夫論,自己新發展出的一貫之學,非先秦儒家以忠恕、仁、禮為內容的一貫之學。焦氏更由此一貫會通三教,並就虛寂本體,言三家之道本質是一而未曾三分,有相互溝通的可能性。故焦氏未曾欲以某一家融合、取代另外兩家,若僅從焦氏會合三教批評他是狂禪,是相當可議的。
    ;In order to know more about Jiao Hong, an extremely influential scholar in the Late Ming Dynasty, his contributions are always been ignored, so nowadays there are less and few people want to go into serious research on this critical scholar. However, there are still many big issues in Jiao Hong’s research that haven’t been discussed, such as his unique insights into the philosophy aspect and his contributions in Chinese scholarship. So the author of this dissertation wants to go into serious research on Jiao Hong’s philosophy ideas and compares it with other Late Ming Dynasty’s philosophers. Besides, clarify and build up distinguishing features of Jiao Hong’s philosophy ideas and figure out his influence and the academic position in Late Ming Dynasty’s philosophy.
    The distinguishing feature of Jiao Hong’s philosophy ideas is that “the highest excellence(至善) cannot be measured totally by ethical standards.” To explain this notion, Jiao Hong used the concepts of “source of emptiness (虛寂本體) its characteristics are unlimited”, and “the highest excellence(至善) cannot be confined to the restriction of good or bad.” So unlike Mencius(孟子) and Yang Ming(陽明), two well-known Chinese philosophers, Jiao Hong’s philosophy ideas aren’t that clear-cut and easy to explain. There are two direct methods to accomplish Jiao Hong’s philosophy ideas. First, clear up all the obstacles that will veil your mind, and let your mind freely emancipate. Because it is not only the source of emptiness but also the highest excellence. The other one is, work far and wide on pursuing knowledge. Since the source of emptiness (虛寂之道) is hard to perceive accurately, Jiao Hong advocates pursuing knowledge widely as a way to tally with the doctrine and become a person whose mind is close to ancient sages. The essential quality of Jiao Hong’s practical theory(工夫論), is that pursuing knowledge is the key to know mind is source of emptiness ,and because it is the highest excellence, it will help people become sage. However, about how to extensively pursue knowledge, unlike Zhu Xi(朱子), Jiao Hong didn’t have a precise definition). In addition, he didn’t put all of his philological studies into a systematic conformation. So these are all the reasons that make the researchers, who study Jiao Hong’s philological theory, easy to separate his two methods with his achievement at the aspect of Exegesis and Chinese Exegetics. But actually, Jiao Hong’s achievement at the aspect of Exegesis and Chinese Exegetics, and his philosophy ideas do relate.
    Even though it is reasonable that the researchers classify Jiao Hong’s philosophy ideas as Kuan Chan(狂禪) . Consider the aspect of his theory conformation, his philosophy ideas totally originate from the Confucian way to realize the source of emptiness, even when he explained the meaning of Buddhist śūnyatā or Taoist Wu
    . So his philosophy ideas to translate Buddhism and Taoism are still based on Confucian viewpoint. Additionally, it’s worth noticing that the existing source is no longer Qin Dynasty’s ethical features, which are on the basis of Ren(仁),Yi(義),Li(禮),Zhi(智),but he source of emptiness.
    The dissertation’s topic is “the study of Jiao Hong′s One Principle Runs Through it all”. The “One Principle ”there means that Jiao Hong utilizes source of emptiness as his philological studies’ major conformation, integrate, practical theory, and develop his own one principle. So the way Jiao Hong explained the principle is different from Confucianism in Qin Dynasty, who explain the principle is based on ethical features. Because of the source of emptiness, Jiao Hong even advocated that the ultimate thinking of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism is the same and shouldn’t be separated into three. Each of them has possibility to communicate. It will be very disputable to criticize Jiao Hong as Kuan Chan. Because he never tried to combine three kinds of philosophy into one or replace another two by the other one.
    顯示於類別:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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