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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/71656


    題名: «愛情持續三年»:一部向楚浮、高達及德米致敬的作者電影;L′amour dure trois ans : un film d′auteur en hommage à François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard et Jacques Demy
    作者: 黃璿基;Huang,Hsuan-Chi
    貢獻者: 法國語文學系
    關鍵詞: 新浪潮;致敬;自傳;化身;作家;不確定性;配樂;廣告;French New Wave;homage;autobiography;personification;writer;uncertainty;soundtrack;advertising
    日期: 2016-06-20
    上傳時間: 2016-10-13 13:27:58 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 費德烈克.貝格貝德(Frédéric Beigbeder) 為法國藝文界才華洋溢的聞人,他除了早年曾經在國際知名的廣告公司擔任廣告創意總監,是個知名的廣告創意人,但因2000年出版一本名為 «99法郎» (99 francs) 的自傳小說,揭發廣告界不為人知的內幕,繼之成為廣告界的叛徒之外,更是一位持續創作的小說家、作家、報章雜誌的文藝專欄作家、電影評論家及花神文學奬 (Prix de Flore) 的創辦人。2012年,他正式跨入電影界,首次將自己於1997年,以自身婚姻失敗的經驗為題材所寫的小說 «愛情持續三年» ( L′amour dure trois ans ) 改編為電影,再次探討愛情能否歴久彌堅的問題。電影於加拿大上片期間,貝格貝德接受媒體採訪時所發表的一段訪談,提及片中男主人翁馬克.馬亨尼 (Marc Marronnier) 受到新浪潮大師楚浮 (François Truffaut) 鏡頭下極富自傳性色彩的安東.安端 (Antoine Doinel) 這個角色的啟發,同時他也暗示了他的電影受到多位新浪潮的導演影響的談話,引發了我們對其首部長片的研究動機。本篇論文除了分析我們認為 «愛情持續三年» 電影裡,哪些場景及哪些劇情受新浪潮的楚浮、高達 (Jean-Luc Godard) 及德米 (Jacques Demy) 作品的啟發及影響之外,也探討影片中另有哪些場景與2007年由 尚古南 (Jan Kounen) 執導改編自貝格貝德的同名小說 «99法郎» 這部富強烈批判廣告色彩的自傳電影互為共鳴。

    論文共分為四個部份。第一部份探討貝格貝德如何在 «愛情持續三年» 裡,拍攝出如同楚浮 «消逝的愛情» (L′amour en fuite) 中,以書、文學及男主角對寫作的熱情為劇情重心的自傳電影。事實上,貝格貝德與楚浮一樣,除了喜愛文學及寫作,他們最大的相同點在於作品都極富自傳性格。他們兩人皆創造了自己的化身人物,並藉著他們在作品中呈現個人的生活及愛情經驗。首先,我們在這個部份裡,勾勒出兩部作品及兩位男主角在人物特徵上的相似性。接著以他們對文學、書籍及寫作所持的相同熱情為探討主軸,對兩部電影分別進行剖析,藉以了解貝格貝德如何在 «愛情持續三年» 中,像是追隨著楚浮的腳步,讓自己的首部長片如同楚浮的 «消逝的愛情» 一般,流露出強烈的文藝氣息。

    除了楚浮,高達是另一位喜歡在自己的電影中呈現他對文學、哲理、閱讀、書籍熱愛的新浪潮導演。他的電影中常常穿插著大量的哲學或文學的旁徵博引、對話和旁白,戲中人物更是經常手持著書高聲朗讀著。儘管如此,我們發現貝格貝德並沒有從這個角度出發讓 «愛情持續三年» 與高達的電影產生具體且明確的關聯。在論文的第二個部份,我們將分析為什麼我們認為貝格貝德事實上是透過兩場男女主角馬克與情人艾莉絲 (Alice) 親密的愛情場景戲向高達改編自義大利小說家阿貝多.莫拉維亞 (Alberto Moravia) 的原名小說電影 «輕蔑» (Le Mépris) 致敬。首先,我們介紹高達如何將個人情感上的困境融入 «輕蔑» 的劇情中,以及他如何突破來自美國製片商對劇情干預的壓力,讓這部電影成為影史上兼具藝術及商業價值的鉅作。接著,我們分析貝格貝德如何以一場外景戲,藉由身為攝影師的艾莉絲從「鏡頭捕捉者」到「被鏡頭捕捉者」的角色轉換,向高達 «輕蔑» 中著名的片頭致敬。最後,我們剖析他又如何從 «輕蔑» 中的另一親密場景獲得啟發,透過馬克與艾莉絲在第一次發生關係後兩人間的親密對話,除了讓人聯想起高達的電影中的碧姬芭杜 (Brigitte Bardot) 與米榭爾.畢柯李 (Michel Piccoli) 的那一句「我不知道」的對話,更藉此巧妙的突顯了愛情關係中難以捉摸的不確定性。

    論文的第三個部份,則在探討貝格貝德如何在電影中,以著名音樂家米榭爾.勒康(Michel Legrand)為德米的 «秋水伊人» (Les Parapluies de Cherbourg) 及«驢皮公主» (Peau d′âne) 所做的音樂電影為媒介,表達他對這兩位大師的至高敬意。我們將第三部份分為兩個段落進行討論。第一段落首在介紹勒康在新浪潮電影音樂中所扮演的關鍵性角色,及他與德米情同手足、合作無間的關係,且兩人如何共同創作出全劇從頭至尾字字句句由演員以歌唱的銓釋方式所拍攝而成的影史鉅作 «秋水伊人»。其次,我們分析 «秋水伊人» 當中英文版的電影主題曲 «我會等你» ( I will wait for you ) 如何在 «愛情持續三年» 的兩個場景中,舉足輕重地影響著兩位男女主角的情感生活。這首歌曲不但讓馬克重新從離婚的陰霾中振作起來,也讓艾莉絲興起了離開丈夫的念頭,前往情人馬克的懷抱中。最後,我們探討 «秋水伊人» 中的男女主角居伊 (Guy) 及珍納維芙 (Geneviève) 是在什麼樣的時空背景下唱出這首動人的離別情歌。並分析居伊及珍納維芙在愛情關係上與 «愛情持續三年» 中的馬克及妻子安娜 (Anne) 間在劇情上所可能產生的關聯。至於第三部份的第二段,我們將探討 «愛情持續三年» 與德米另一部電影 «驢皮公主» 間的關係。首先,我們闡述德米如何受到卡克多 (Jean Cocteau) «美女與野獸» (La Belle et la Bête) 電影、迪斯奈「白雪公主」(Blanche-Neige) 卡通片及70年代美國普普藝術 (Pop Art) 的啟發,並再度於勒康創作的音樂中,以嶄新的手法,拍出了改編自查爾斯.貝洛 (Charles Perrault) 同名童話故事的奇幻鉅作:« 驢皮公主 »。在概略介紹德米的 «驢皮公主» 劇情後,我們緊接著分析 «愛情持續三年» 裡兩場與德米的 «驢皮公主» 有直接關聯的場景。第一個是馬克與艾莉絲兩人在交談中發現因為都喜歡聽勒康的音樂,且同為 «驢皮公主» 的影迷,雙方因而對對方產生了進一步的好感。我們將特別針對馬克對 «驢皮公主» 中仙女 (La Fée des Lilas) 這個道德捍衛者的評論提出分析,以了解其話中可能具有的意義,即馬克反對道德介入愛情的立場。至於第二個與 «驢皮公主» 有關的情節,則是一直盼望與艾莉絲重修舊好的馬克,在電視節目中向情人做了愛的告白後,腦中產生了與現實脫節的幻覺,以為艾莉絲真的受其感動而飛奔前來與他破鏡重圓。我們將剖析為什麼貝格貝德在這一場戲中以 «驢皮公主» 中的一段電影純音樂做為配樂,同時,我們還原原曲中的歌詞,檢視歌詞中哪些部份與貝格貝德的愛情價值觀互為共鳴。最後,我們從面對情感與道德規範有所牴觸時,以男女間不同的心態及採取不同的應對方式之前提下,分析貝格貝德如何投射片中人物馬克與艾莉絲的婚外情於 «驢皮公主» 中面對有可能發生亂倫之嫌的國王及公主的身上,使得 «愛情持續三年» 與 «驢皮公主» 在激情與理智間遊走的情感關係的呈現中產生了共鳴。

    最後,我們探討 «愛情持續三年» 與 «99法郎» 兩部電影間的關係做為論文的結尾。我們先分析 «愛情持續三年» 中,貝格貝德如何藉著男主人翁以「證人」的身份,在好友皮耶 (Pierre) 及凱蒂 (Kathy) 婚宴上所發表的一段變調的賀詞內容,強烈暗示及提醒觀眾馬克曾經為廣告從業者。接著,我們分析貝格貝德如何藉著相同的音樂及單一場景的表現方式,讓 «愛情持續三年» 中馬克獨處家中閉門寫作的戲與 «99法郎» 裡歐克達.帕杭果 (Octave Parango) 在廣告公司痛歐同事的戲發生關聯,並突顯作家與廣告工作者不同的思維及工作方式。


    ;Frédéric Beigbeder is a talented literary figure in the community of French literature and arts. In his early career, he was a creative director in a global advertising agency. His creativity in advertisement had been widely acknowledged. In year 2000, his autobiographical publication, 99 francs unveiled the dark side of the advertising industry. Consequently, he was regarded an infamous traitor in the advertising world. Being dedicated to writing, Beigbeder later becomes a novelist, a writer, a literary columnist, a film critic and the founder of the Prix de Flore. In year 2012, he officially entered the film industry while directing L′amour dure trois ans, an adaptation from his own 1997 novel, which was inspired by his personal experience being through a failed marriage. In the film adaptation, Beigbeder explored whether or not love can last forever. As the film was released in Canada, Beigbeder received a media interview and indicated how Marc Marronnier, the protagonist in the film was a role he found inspiration from Antoine Doinel, a highly autobiographical role created by François Truffaut. Meanwhile, his talk about how his film was deeply influenced by the dialogues of numerous French New Wave directors has also triggered our motivation to investigate the elements in Beigbeder’s first movie. This thesis not only analyzes how movie scenes and storylines in L′amour dure trois ans are inspired and influenced by the creation of Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard and Jacques Demy, but also discovers how specific scenes respond to the 2007 film 99 francs, directed by Jan Kounen. This is also an autobiographical film adapted from Beigbeder’s novel 99 francs, which heavily criticizes the advertising industry.

    The thesis is divided into four parts. Firstly, we investigate how Beigbeder approached to make an autobiographical movie as Truffaut did in his L′amour en fuite, which put emphasis on books, literature and the male protagonist’s passion for writing. Like Truffaut, Beigbeder not only loves literature and writing passionately, but also makes a highly autobiographical film. Both directors embodied themselves in their films, and expressed their personal experiences in life and love. In Part 1, we outline the similarities of the two movies and the two protagonists. Based on two leading roles’ common passion for literature, books and writing, we analyze the two films to understand how Beigbeder expressed the strong cultural ambience in L′amour dure trois ans, as if he was following the suit of Truffaut in creating L′amour en fuite.

    Other than Truffaut, Godard is another New Wave director full of enthusiasm for literature, philosophy, reading and books. His movies are often interlaced with rich and abundant philosophical or literary references, dialogues and narration. His characters often read aloud the words from books in hand. Nevertheless, we find that Beigbeder did not make a concrete and specific connection with Godard’s movies in this aspect. In Part 2, we analyze why and how Marc and Alice’s intimate scene was a representation of homage to Godard’s adaption movie, Le Mépris, written by Alberto Moravia. First of all, we explain how Godard infused the personal sentimental dilemma into the storyline of Le Mépris, and how he overcame the pressure from the American producer who was attempt to manipulate the storyline, and eventually made the movie one masterpiece with both artistic and commercial values in the film history. Next, we discover how Beigbeder arranged an outdoor scene, in which Alice the photographer experiences a role swop from “subject” to “object”. This scene was actually a homage to the well-known opening of Le Mépris. Lastly, we identify how Beigbeder was inspired by an intimate scene from Le Mépris. Through the intimate talk between Marc and his lover Alice after their first sex, people cannot help but relate it to the dialogue of “I don’t know” between Brigitte Bardot and Michel Piccoli. Such arrangement subtly pinpoints the uncertainty of love.

    In Part 3, the thesis discovers how Beigbeder expresses his homage to Michel Legrand and Jacques Demy by incorporating their co-working musical films, Les Parapluies de Cherbourg and Peau d′âne into his creation. Part 3 is further divided into two sections. First, we focus on the introduction of Legrand’s importance in the New Wave film music history, his brotherhood and partnership with Demy, as well as how the duo successfully completed Les Parapluies de Cherbourg, which features operatic, with the plot advanced entirely through dialogue sung with accompanying music. And, we identify the theme song of Les Parapluies de Cherbourg, “I will wait for you”, and discover how the song has strongly influenced the couple’s relationship in the two scenes of L′amour dure trois ans. This song not only helped Marc get back on his own feet from the divorce, but also made Alice to determine to leave her husband and returned to her loved one, Marc. At the end of this section, we investigate Guy and Geneviève, the leading characters of Les Parapluies de Cherbourg about the context as they sing this moving farewell love song. In addition, we also analyze the possible relatedness between the love of Guy and Geneviève and that of Marc and his wife Anne. In the second section of Part 3, we identify the connection between L′amour dure trois ans and Demy’s Peau d′âne. In the beginning, we elaborate how Demy was influenced by Jean Cocteau’s La Belle et la Bête, Disney’s cartoon Blanche-Neige and Pop Art in the 1970s, and subsequently directed Charles Perrault’s novel Peau d′âne in an innovative approach, incorporating with Legrand’s creativity and made it a successful adaptation musical film. Following a short introduction of the storyline of Demy’s Peau d′âne, we then analyze why the two scenes in L′amour dure trois ans have a direct connection to Demy’s Peau d′âne. First, in a conversation, Marc and Alice realized that they not only appreciate the music of Legrand, but also love Peau d′âne. As a result, something has come out between the two. We highlight the comments of Marc on La Fée des Lilas, the moral defender in Peau d′âne, and discover his perspective that moral should not override love. Second, when Marc expresses his love to Alice on TV, an illusion rises in his head, fantasizing Alice’s return for his utterance. Here we analyze why Beigbeder chose to use a music score of Peau d′âne as the background music in this scene. At the same time, we review the lyrics of the music score, and identify the similarity of the love values believed by Beigbeder. Whenever there is a conflict between sentiment and moral compliance, men and women may take different attitude and approaches. We also analyze how Beigbeder resonates the romantic affair of Marc and Alice to the incest tendency of the king and his princess daughter in Peau d′âne; how the two films echo each other in the presentation of sentiment relationship displayed in sense and sensibility interchangeably.

    Lastly, we investigate the relatedness between L′amour dure trois ans and 99 francs. In L′amour dure trois ans, Marc gives an awkward speech in the wedding of his best friend, Pierre and Kathy. The speech here strongly indicated and reminded the audience the fact that Marc used to work in an advertising agency. At the end, the researcher highlights how writers and advertisers work differently in thinking and approaches by analyzing Beigbeder’s use of identical background music and single-scene approach to present the scene of Marc’s home alone writing and the scene of Octave Parango who punches his colleague hard in the advertising company in 99 francs.
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