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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/71683


    Title: 臺灣當代客家戲曲人才養成之研究
    Authors: 王芳敏;WANG,FAN-MIN
    Contributors: 客家政治經濟研究所
    Keywords: 客家;客家戲;採茶戲;表演人才養成;藝術教育
    Date: 2016-08-31
    Issue Date: 2016-10-13 13:44:23 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本研究便是在意識到當今生態環境這個困境的情況下,試著從圈內人、表演者的角度,以「臺灣當代客家戲曲人才養成」為論文主軸,嘗試探討更有效的因應策略。客家採茶戲早期活動於民間,多以「口傳心授」傳承,並且透過所謂的「綁戲」模式招收年輕人加入,以培育表演人。表演藝術與其身處的歷史環境當時人們生活的娛樂、經濟、政治條件,與消費行為等息息相關,時代的變遷,往往人們消費習慣與價值觀也隨之被環境改變、影響。傳統戲曲在當代屬於小眾市場,已是不爭的事實。
    儘管如此,本文試圖藉由政府相關文化單位與民間藝術團隊合作舉辦,數個「客家戲曲人才教育養成」相關計畫案,以及正式成為國家官方教育體制內的國立臺灣曲學院客家戲學系兩個主軸方向,探討戲曲教育與傳承的相關議題,研究方法採取「文獻分析」、「深度訪談」、「焦點座談」等方式來作為研究之輔助,挑選的訪談對象多是與上述兩大主軸方向的關係人。「深度訪談」對象為相關傳習、研習班、劇團等計畫主要關係人;國立臺灣戲曲學院學、科教師、在校生及畢業生。「焦點座談」主要針對國立臺灣戲曲學院在校生與暑期研習營學童。
    本研究探討結果發現,於西元1997起,政府相關文化單位與民間劇團合作執行的「客家戲曲傳習計畫」、「客家戲曲表演人才培訓計畫」,共計六年的相關傳習,是促使客家戲曲納入國家教育體系重要計畫案;後續,另延續有其他「表演人才」相關傳習,與校園暑期戲曲研習營等,則是不同功能的戲曲教學計畫。因此,針對計畫屬性,在有限的時效裡,可依對象、性質的不同,設計不同標的的傳習課程,或調整,或延長,或分不同程度,將會更加有效的解決未來表演人才培育與傳承的問題。西元2001,客家戲曲進入正規教育體系後,從早期師徒制、民間自學的型態,轉變成具有系統性的一貫養成模式,加上與民間劇團建教合作,讓學生在正式進入業界相關職場之前,便開始累積中大型製作演出的舞臺參與經驗。然而,畢業學生和業界從業人員,同樣要面臨市場需求的考驗,因此政府正規教育體系,課程裡學、術科如何有效配置,才不致互相牽制,而能夠取得平衡、發揮最佳效益,仍有待探討。再者,不論是官方教育體系或是民間藝術團隊,皆試圖解決客家戲曲有關「演員」和「觀眾」兩者的培育與推廣,然而,戲曲教育體制的「學校」,與產業業界代表的劇團,所能共創的市場需求量畢竟還是有其侷限,現階段尚需倚靠政府相關單位與民間力量共同創造、經營,使客家傳統戲曲藝術能夠有更為永續發展、保存的空間。;Abstract
    In this study, the author selected the “Cultivation of Modern Hakka Opera Talents in Taiwan” as the core topic to explore more effective coping strategies from the perspectives of insiders and performers after recognizing the dilemma in the current ecological environment. The Hakka Tea-picking Opera was active in the community during the early periods. It was primarily passed-on through “oral instructions that inspire true understanding,” and the “performance contract” method was used to recruit young talents and cultivate performers. Performing arts and its historical environment were closely related to the entertainment, economy, political conditions, and consumer behaviors of the people at the time. As time progresses, the people′s consumption behaviors and values have also been modified and influenced by the environment. It is an indisputable fact that traditional opera is considered as a niche market in the modern era. Despite so, the author of this study explored the traditional opera education and teaching related topics in two core directions: (1) endeavoring to organize numerous “Hakka Opera Talent Education and Cultivation” related programs through collaborations between the relevant government cultural institutions and the folk art teams, and (2) consulting with the National Taiwan College of Performing Arts, Department of Hakka Opera, that has officially become part of the national education system. The author has adopted the “literature review,” “in-depth interview,” and “focus discussion” methods for this study; and the interviewees were people associated to the two core directions discussed above. The subjects of “in-depth interviews” were primarily people related to the relevant courses, workshops, and opera company programs; including the teachers, students, and students who have graduated from the National Taiwan College of Performing Arts. The subjects of “focus discussions” were primarily school students and summer camp learning students of the National Taiwan College of Performing Arts.
    The results of this study indicated that the relevant government cultural institutions and the folk art teams have collaborated to implement the “Hakka Opera Teaching Plan” and the “Hakka Opera Performance Talent Cultivation Plan” since 1997 for six years. They were the key programs that prompted the adoption of Hakka opera as part of the nation′s education system. Subsequently, different functional opera teaching programs such as the “performance talent” related courses and summer school opera study camps were also created. Therefore, the performance talent cultivation and teaching issues can be more effectively resolved in the future by designing different teaching course subjects, adjusting or extending the course periods, or divide the courses into different levels based on the different subjects and features according to the attributes of the programs within the limited timeframe.
    Since Hakka opera was adopted into the formal education system in 2001, the earlier apprenticeship self-taught learning method has evolved into a consistent systemic learning method. In addition, the folk opera theater education collaborations have enabled students to start gaining stage participation experiences with mid- to large-scale production shows before their official entries into the relevant workplaces in the industry. However, graduate students and industry practitioners must all face the trials of market demands. Therefore, how to effectively allocate the course subjects so that they would not hinder each other, strike a balance, and exert the best efficiency remains to be explored. In addition, both the official education system and folk art teams have all attempted to resolve the Hakka opera “actor” and “audience” cultivation and promotion issues; but the market demand created by the educational system opera “schools” and the industry trade representative opera companies is still limited. At the present stage, the Hakka traditional opera art must still rely on the creativities and management from the relevant government institutions and civilian forces in order to achieve more sustainable development and the room for survival.

    Keywords: Hakka, Tea-picking Opera, Hakka opera, performance talent cultivation, arts education.
    Appears in Collections:[客家政治經濟研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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