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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/71694


    Title: 沙巴客家移民及其詞彙研究
    Authors: 黃文斌;HUANG,WEN-BIN
    Contributors: 客家語文研究所
    Keywords: 沙巴客家話;基督教巴色會;福佬客;國語客;Sabah HakKa language;Basel Christian Church;Mandarin-HakKa
    Date: 2016-08-31
    Issue Date: 2016-10-13 13:45:20 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 馬來西亞聯邦的沙巴(Sabah)州,約有24萬人以上係來自廣東龍川、寶安、五華…等地的客家移民及其後代,約占當地華人總數的六、七成以上,在華語尚未普及之前,客家話是當地華人各方言族群的優勢共同語言。這在南洋各地,普遍以閩南人、廣東人或潮汕人占多數的華人移民社會,是非常難得的現象。
    一百三十年來,沙巴客家多數在基督教巴色會協助下,陸續移入,故「沙巴客家話」,應是祖籍龍川、寶安二大客家形成的混合型口音。因為歷史、地緣環境因素,沙巴客家話也受到粵、閩南、潮汕或其他華人族群,及英國殖民政府、當地土族、馬來人的影響,摻雜不少其他族群詞彙用語特色。
      本論文分六章,依次為:(一)緒論,(二)沙巴客家移民社會概述,(三)沙巴龍川客家話語音系統,(四)沙巴客家話語音及詞彙特點研究,(五)沙巴客家話特殊詞彙及用語,(六)結論。綜合上述,本研究發現:
    (1) 沙巴龍川客話受寶安籍客話影響,原有舌葉塞擦音 [tʃ, tʃ, ʃ ] 已漸消失,  
     而與寶安客話舌尖塞擦音[ ts, ts’, s ]合流,但擦音 [Ʒ]聲母仍保留。
    (2) 沙巴龍川客話的 [n]、[l] 「泥、來」母,仍不相混;寶安客話的泥來
     [n、l ] 發音,都已經有[ nl ]靠攏的現象,亦即都相混為 [ l ] 音。
    (3) 寶安客話的唇齒擦音 [v] ,多已形成 [vw]雙唇音 靠攏的現象。另外,龍川籍
     發音 [ua, uai, uan, uat] 時,[u]介音仍有保留;寶安籍發前述音時, [u]介音多
     已消失。
     前述發音現象,應是口腔發音上「複雜發音往較簡單發音」發展的趨勢,或許
     是一般所謂的「惰化現象」,如同華語發音[ㄋㄌ;ㄖㄌ]靠攏的現象。
    (4) 客家詞彙,因歷史及環境因素,吸收了許多華語、閩粵語、英語、馬來語
    詞彙的客語發音,也有不少「合壁詞」出現,豐富了客家話的詞彙生命力。
    (5) 由於華校教育及媒體強力傳播,客家家庭內的客語式微現象嚴重,如更多
      客家青年把華語當成第一母語,就像台灣中南部早期客家「福佬客」,
    與今日普遍的「國/(華)語客」現象一樣,客語可能已達即將被全面消滅程度。
      「語言失、文化滅、族群亡」,在可預見的未來,當地客家人若未意識到客家話流失的嚴重性,則可能步上如台灣少數族群及語言迅速消失的命運。
    ;Sabah, a state belong to Malaysia, is located at the north-east of the Borneo, near the South China Sea. There are about 240,000 HakKa residents who mainly migrated from LungChuan(龍川), BaoAn(寶安), and other areas in Canton province, China, between 1882 to 1949, under the agreement signed by the Basel Christian Church and the colonial British North-Borneo Chartered Company. The contracted immigration made HakKa dominated roughly between 60-70% population within Chinese ethnic groups-Cantonese, HokKien(閩南人), HakKa, TeoChew(潮汕人), HaiLam(海南人) and others. As the result, HakKa language became the Lingua Franca among Chinese immigrants in Sabah, until the rise of Chinese-Mandarin in recent 1 or 2 decades.

    The studied six chapters are: (1) The preface. (2) Introduction of HakKa society in Sabah. (3) LungChuan HakKa language system. (4) Features of Sabah HakKa vocabularies.
    (5) Special Sabah HakKa vocabulary and usages. (6) Conclusion.

    Within Sabah Hakka, two major sub-accented groups—namely LungChuan and BaoAn have been mixed in the past century. However, here are the facts that show the Sabah Hakka language development in the past.
    (1) The LungChuans are still keeping their /Ʒ/, yet gradually loosing their original
    /tʃ, tʃ’, ʃ/ sounds which were merged in /ts, ts’, s/ as phonologically “easy pronunciations”.
    (2) The LungChuans are still keeping their /n/ and /l/ sounds in good position, while the BaoAns are almost made their /n/ into /l/ sound completely.
    (3) Obviously the lip-teeth frictive /v/ sound is replaced by lip sound /w/ by most of BaoAns in their daily conversation. In addition, LungChuans keep /u/ whenever pronouncing /ua, uai, uan, uat/ sound; yet BaoAns are likely lost /u/ sound on the above.
    (4) During the language evolution, Sabah HakKa absorbed large number of new vocabularies from other Chinese ethnic groups, local tribes, European and Malay.
    (5) HakKa language has been squeezing significantly by the powerful Chinese-Mandarin due to education and mass media impact in past decades. If no effective steps were taken, the HakKa language will surely be disappeared in next decades.
    Appears in Collections:[客家語文研究所] 博碩士論文

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