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|Title: ||論納斯邦(Martha C. Nussbaum)的動物正義進路─動物實驗爭議的解決;On Martha C. Nussbaum’s Approach to Animal Justice: A Solution for Animal Experimental Controversy|
|Keywords: ||動物實驗;同理心;動物福利;動物權利;能力進路;animal experimentation;compassion;animal welfare;animal right;capability approach|
|Issue Date: ||2016-10-13 13:48:15 (UTC+8)|
雷根(Tom Regan)以生命主體所具有本有價值(inherent value)的觀點說明道德行動者和道德受動者應享有直接義務與權利。由於動物作為道德受動者符合生命主體特性與適用於道德原則的應用範圍，動物具有被平等對待的權利。雷根認為，避免或禁止殘忍的動物實驗，則需給予動物足夠保護不受傷害的權利，以防止動物被當作純然的工具。雷根的強動物權利主張基本上否決一切動物實驗。
納斯邦(Martha C. Nussbaum)提出「同理心」(compassion)的道德原則，說明人類與動物在生理與心理上同樣具有的相似的脆弱性，因此動物在不應得的困境下所遭受的痛苦，我們會對動物有「同理心」與幫助行為的意願。納斯邦提出動物能力列表，關注的不只是動物的感知能力，也重視動物的情緒反應，展現出以人性情感的關懷並且引導對動物的道德責任。動物實驗應以同理心和動物能力列表來考量，特別強調對實驗動物在實驗前後應有的合理對待。
;This thesis attempts to provide an acceptable solution for the long-term disputes on animal experimentation through examining the different arguments about animal experimentation ethics from contemporary authors, modern biochemical and relevant technology, and the laws and institutions for the animal experimentation.
Peter Singer considered sentience and self-awareness as the most important characteristic of living creatures, and employed sentience as the criterion for judging equality among different species. Accordingly, use of animals to conduct experimentation requires us to consider equally the situations when animals are replaced by human participants of similar sentient capacity. Singer was argued against the use of animals to conduct cruel and repetitive experimentations.
Tom Regan introduces the concept of inherent value to explain our direct duties towards “moral agent” and “moral patient”. According to his point, animals are subjects of a life and moral patients, and thus within the range of moral protection; therefore, animals have the rights to be treated equally as moral agents. To eliminate or prevent inhuman testing, he argued that direct animal obligation is an essential requirement in order to protect animals from injuries and being sacrificed under the interest-seeking activities of humans. His strong animal right standpoint amounts to a total elimination of all animal experimentation.
Martha C. Nussbaum argued that compassion is the basis of our moral treatment of the similar vulnerability of physiology and the psychology found in animals and humans. According to her work, animals suffered in the experimentation motivate us to have compassion for them and to help them. The capabilities development list of animals created by Nussbaum had its focus, not only on sensation of animals, but also on the emotional responses of them, reflecting her humanistic concerns for animal testing and our moral responsibility for animals used in experimentation.
This paper argues that acceptable solution for disputes on animal experimentation could be found from works of moral theories and practices. According to the well-being, animal right and compassion points of view advocated by the three philosophers mentioned above, proper laws and institutions should be established and maintained for animals testing, and modern biochemical and relevant technologies should be used to replace or decrease animal testing. By doing so, it is expected the plight and controversy over animal experimentation shall finally find its way out.
|Appears in Collections:||[哲學研究所] 博碩士論文|
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