王船山於所著《莊子解》中，透過《莊子》書的概念，論述了他所構思的外王之道。 我在本論文中討論了船山的「氣」、「天」及「兩行之道」的觀念，藉以理解船山於《莊子解》中所展現的外王之道。船山認為，天地乃氣所構成、並無一主宰，所謂的「天」即是「自然」──亦即「無必然」。他主張，治者須「師天」──師天之無必然，不將一家之「物論」視為真理、強迫百姓遵循之，而是讓所有人依其「自然」而行。 在此治道下，讓萬物得以「自我實現」，沒有外力強迫，萬物只是成就其自己；藉由這種治道，「明王」讓萬物得以自足而逍遙。 而船山之所以主張「師天」，乃是基於對「人類理性之有限」及「自發秩序」的認識。 「人類理性之有限」與「自發秩序」的概念亦出現在Hayek的思想中；因此，本文將Hayek的相關思想做為詮釋對照參考系，對二者進行簡單的對照。;Wang Chuan-shan wrote Annotation of Zhaung-zi，to show his thought about the ways of external kings through Zhuangzi’s conception. I discussed Wang’s theories of “qi” and “heaven”, and Zhuangzi’s idea of “walking two ways”, tried to understand the thought of the ways of external kings in Annotation of Zhaung-zi. In Wang’s view, the world is composed exclusively of “qi”, without creator or executer ; the heaven is nothing but spontaneity, and spontaneity means no necessity. He claims that the rulers of people should learn from heaven; for example, they must not insist on a certain theory as truth and force the people to follow it, but should let everything go its own natural way. In this mode of governance, let numerous things could be “self-realized”; there is no forced oppression and things are able to become themselves. Through this kind of political practice, wise rulers could let all things obtained satisfaction. Wang’s reasons of “learning from heaven” are that there is spontaneous order in the world, and humanrational knowledge is limited. There are also the concepts of “humanrational knowledge is limited”and “spontaneous order” in F. A. Hayek’s theory, so I compare Hayek’s throught to Wang’s.