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    题名: 市場競爭、外溢效果與商品和跨國服務貿易:台灣電子業的實證
    作者: 李政穎;Li,Cheng-Ying
    贡献者: 產業經濟研究所
    关键词: 出口;競爭;外溢效果;Export;HHI;Spillover
    日期: 2016-07-22
    上传时间: 2016-10-13 14:02:14 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 本研究以民國95、100年的工商及服務業普查資料,針對台灣電子製造業和電子批發零售業的廠商,探討如市場競爭程度、外溢效果以及網路銷售等重要因素對出口行為的影響,並比較實體商品出口與跨國服務銷售之間的差異。
    實證結果顯示,不論在電子製造業與批發零售業之中,市場競爭程度皆與商品出口表現有明顯的正向關係,當產業市場競爭越激烈時,能促使更多廠商投入國際市場,增加廠商出口機率和商品外銷比例。外溢效果方面,本研究區分為出口及外資的外溢效果。在製造業中,外資企業比重越高的產業,可能會使國內企業難以與其競爭,特別對中小型廠商之出口產生負面影響;而相反地,在批發零售業則發現出口及外資的外溢效果對出口表現有正向幫助,顯示批發零售業的廠商較有可能透過外溢效果降低貿易障礙或經由接觸與學習外資企業的經營模式,來提升出口競爭力。
    本文也發現商品與服務出口可能存在著互補關係,商品出口的廠商有更高的機率提供跨國服務。比較廠商的平均勞動生產力,可發現同時出口商品與服務之廠商擁有最高的生產力,其次為單獨出口商品的廠商、單獨從事跨國服務的廠商,而生產力最低者則為兩項皆無出口的內銷廠商。
    其他廠商特性方面,規模越大、擁有自有品牌、使用網路銷售、為外資企業和對海外公司具控制力的廠商,皆對出口表現有正顯著影響。值得一提的是,無論電子製造業或批發零售業,網路銷售的興起皆對於小型廠商產生更明顯的助益,有效提升其實體商品和無形服務的出口機率。
    ;Using the Industry, Commerce and Service Census of Taiwan in 2006 and 2011, we investigate the impacts of market competition, spillovers and online selling on the firms’ export behavior in electronics industry, which include electronics manufacturing and wholesale and retail trade.
    The results show that the degree of market competition is positively associated with firms’ export performance. Foreign spillover is negatively correlated with firm’s export propensity and export ratio in manufacturing, but on the contrary, it is positively correlated with the export propensity in wholesale and retail trade firms. The reason is that domestic firms may be difficult to compete with foreign firms on the export market in manufacturing, especially for medium and small firms, but in wholesale and retail trade, domestic firms are more likely to improve their productivity through learning business knowledge and technology from foreign firms.
    We also find a complementary relationship between goods trade and services trade. Moreover, firms export both goods and services have the highest labor productivity, following by firms export goods only, firms export services only, and firms export neither goods nor services.
    For other firm characteristics, firm size, own-brand, online sale, foreign ownership and whether the firm engages in outward foreign direct investment all have positive effects on export performance. It is worth noting that no matter manufacturing or whole and retail trade, online sale is more effective to increase exports for small firms.
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