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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/72381


    題名: 美國對華政策之研究(1947-1950);A Study of the U.S. Policy toward the Republic of China,1947-1950
    作者: 黃美華;Huang,Mei-Hua
    貢獻者: 歷史研究所
    關鍵詞: 國安會文件編號 37系列;孫立人;臺灣自由省;臺灣局勢假設性發展;National Security Council 37 series;Sun Li Jen;Taiwan Free Province;Hypothetical Development of the Formosan Situation
    日期: 2016-07-29
    上傳時間: 2016-10-13 14:51:24 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 鑒於國府只是有限度的改組,即表面接納民社黨、青年黨與無黨派社會賢達人士入閣,但實際決策掌權者仍為蔣中正或反對政學系的CC系。司徒雷登曾告知蔣中正只要進行改革,華府便能以適當方式援助中國。國民黨與三民主義青年團合併後,華府認知到三青團主要由CC系掌控,全國行政雖以政學系為主,但國民黨在地方和組織系統皆由CC系所統治,原本黨團合併是希望消除國民黨與三青團之間存在已久的隔閡,反而讓華府認為黨團合併後須重新登記黨員可能一種改革或清黨,現階段難以預料此種改革和清黨的形式及性質,唯一知道的是CC系地位更加鞏固。
    隨著中國局勢變化,華府遲早要面對國府垮臺後之局勢變遷,蔣中正對國民黨黨權已鬆脫,國民黨內部亦呈現分裂狀態。有鑒於此,國務院開始尋求能夠實踐改革的領導者。華府認為國府崩潰只是時間上的問題,在準備放棄蔣中正領導的國府的同時,也準備將中國大陸與臺灣分離。人民解放軍渡江後,莫成德認為有必要修正美國對臺政策,國府軍隊似不可能團結抵抗共產黨,且無論李宗仁與蔣中正爭權結果為何,國府僅剩區域性質,因而提出「精打細算但可隨機應變的不作為」政策來與國府保持距離。
    華府放棄蔣中正所領導的國府後,選擇對臺灣袖手旁觀,希望與中共建立新關係。蘇聯與中共建立新夥伴關係後,國務院開始研擬如何挽救臺灣,將臺灣中立化,或是支持孫立人發動政變。韓戰爆發後,發動政變之想法暫時擱置,華府派遣第七艦隊來中立臺灣。
    ;There was a limited reorganization of the National Government but it was one which failed to bring about any significant changes, namely the Socialist Democratic Party, the Youth Party and the non-party appointees to join the National Government, whereas Kuomintang refusal to permit the minority parties to organize and campaign freely for the elections and control by the CC Clique throughout National Government territory, in the same few hands and within this framework Chiang Kai-shek has continued to be the main determinative force in Chinese Government policy. John Leighton Stuart has told Chiang Kai-shek the U.S. Government will assist the National Government as long as reform. After consolidating the San Min Chu I Youth Corps with the Kuomintang, the U.S. Government recognized largely domination by the CC Clique on a local and organizational basis through with a primarily Political Science Group national administration, and the Youth Corps, largely domination by the CC Clique but also resisting that influence through army inspiration. As for the consolidation of the Youth Corps with the Party, it was a desire to eliminate the growing friction between the Kuomintang. Whereas the U.S. Government recognized there may indeed be reform and purge of a kind since the program for consolidation of the Youth Corps provides for a reenlistment of all Party members. It is difficult at this stage to predict what form it will conform to the desires and ambitions of the dominant clique. In this connection it should be noted that indications are the CC Clique has emerged in a stronger position than previously because it controls the Youth Corps.
    The U.S. Government foresaw the ultimate collapse of the National Government with change occurring in the Chinese civil war on the mainland. Within Nationalist China the power and prestige of Chiang Kai-shek is steadily weakening because of the unsuccessful prosecution of the war under his leadership and his apparent unwillingness and inability to accomplish positive reforms. The principal dangers to the National Government continue to be the progressive deterioration of the military situation, the prospect of a breach in Nationalist ranks through the formation of regional political associations. While the removal of Chiang’s dominating personality would open the way for the formation of a broadly representative government under new and progressive non-Communist leadership. The U.S. Government faced up to the probability that disappearance of the National Government as they know it is only a matter of time. The U.S. Government isolated Taiwan and the Pescadores from the mainland while abandoning Chiang Kai-shek’s regime. With collapse of peace talks, virtually unopposed crossing of Yangtze, Livingston T. Merchant considered any united Nationalist military resistance to Communists appears improbable. Any resistance seems almost certain to be provincial or regional regardless of outcome showdown between Li Tsung-jen and Chiang Kai-shek for clear title as President disintegrating Republic. Merchant proposed a policy of calculated inaction colored with opportunism, hence the U.S. Government kept the National Government at a distance.
    The U.S. Government took hands-off policy after abandoning Chiang Kai-shek’s regime, and developing new relationship with Communists. Chinese Communist Party formed an alliance with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, American policy-makers elaborated policies to prevent the Communist manipulation of Taiwan against the U.S. thereby. The outbreak of the Korean War, Truman announced that a naval force would be sent to neutralize the Taiwan Straits. Thenceforward, the plan of staging a Coup D′état on Taiwan is in abeyance.
    顯示於類別:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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