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    题名: 「學雷鋒」運動之研究(1960-1963);A Research on the “Learn from Lei Feng” Campaign(1960-1963)
    作者: 沈怡廷;Shen-Yi-Ting
    贡献者: 歷史研究所在職專班
    关键词: 毛澤東;雷鋒;雷鋒精神;理想類型;Mao Zedong;Lei Feng;Lei Feng’s spirit;Ideal type
    日期: 2016-07-20
    上传时间: 2016-10-13 14:51:29 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 1963年3月5日,《人民日報》刊載了毛澤東的題詞──「向雷鋒同志學習」後,一場由國家領導人群起號召的國家運動就此揭開序幕,雷鋒成為中共建國以來,宣傳規模最大、歷時最長、影響最深、成效顯著的典型人物,與許多應時而生、因時而滅的典型人物不同,其精神跨越時空界限,「學雷鋒」運動亦在其歿世的54年歷史進程中不斷延續,時至今日,雷鋒仍然以各種形式的活動延續他的道德影響力。
    雷鋒精神的誕生有其特殊的歷史條件。50年代末期至60年代初期,由於國際外交情勢的緊張與國內建設方針的決策失誤,使中共遭受到前所未有的嚴峻考驗,國家迫切需要透過社會主義教育運動鼓舞人民鬥志,提升全黨全國的政治覺悟,而雷鋒一心向公的奉獻精神、戰勝困難的高昂鬥志、願為共產主義奉獻的愛國精神,全然符合當時國家領導人希望全國人民具備之精神特質,雷鋒近乎完美的理想人格與堅定的政治信念,成為國家側重塑造的理想類型(ideal type)與思想政治教育的工具,因而在國家領導人題詞的大力號召下,以黨報作為核心,透過各種傳媒、藝文活動的宣傳,使典型的社會影響力達到顛峰,有效將國家的主流意識形態灌輸到民眾的日常生活之中,以收政治社會化(political socialization)之效。雷鋒典型的出現,無疑是歷史發展進程中的時代產物。;After People’s Daily issued a report of Mao Zedong’s inscription “Learn from Lei Feng” on March 5th, 1963, a national campaign led by the leaders of the country was started. Lei Feng became the most propagandized role model, being the most influential, successful and remarkable for the longest period since the establishment of People’s Republic of China. Differing from most role models who grew and perished with time, his spirit survived timelessly. The “Learn from Lei Feng” campaign continued for another fifty-four years after he passed away, and his moral influences is continued even to this day in the form of various campaigns.
    Lei Feng’s spirit originated from the historical background specific to his times. From the late 1950s to the early 1960s, China suffered the tremendous ordeal due to serious diplomatic situation and the wrong decisions of the construction policy. The country was in urgent need for a campaign of social education to encourage its people and increase the political awareness of both the party and the country. Lei Feng’s altruistic spirit of sacrificing for the people and community, and his strength and determination to overcome obstacles all met the expectations for a leader of the country anticipated by its people. Lei Feng’s almost perfect characteristic and his firm political belief have become the “ideal type” and a political tool for educating people with the ideology and politics that the communist party emphasizes. Under Mao Zedong’s inscription and exhortations, the social influence of “Learn from Lei Feng” was widely spread through the media (mainly the newspapers of the party), as well as various forms of propaganda such as art and literature. The social influence of the “Learn from Lei Feng” campaign achieved its peak and effectively instilled the mainstream ideology of the country into the daily life of its people. At last, the campaign harvested the effects of political socialization. The role model, Lei Feng, is undoubtedly a development of its generation.
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